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Objective—To report values for percentage coverage of the femoral head (PC) and Norberg angle (NA) in 4 common breeds of dogs and to determine values for each that distinguish between normal and dysplastic hip status on the basis of Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip evaluation.

Animals—1,841 dogs 24 to 48 months of age that were Labrador Retrievers (455), Golden Retrievers (423), Rottweilers (545), or German Shepherd Dogs (418).

Procedure—Retrospective analysis of NA and PC measured from standard OFA ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs from 4 breeds of dog.

Results—Norberg angle ranged from 67.4 to 124.4° for Labrador Retrievers, 59.7 to 128.6° for Rottweilers, 70.2 to 119.4° for Golden Retrievers, and 55.3 to 121.3° for German Shepherd Dogs. The PC ranged from 6.5 to 79.9% for Labrador Retrievers, 5.7 to 79.5% for Rottweilers, 8.3 to 79.3% for Golden Retrievers, and 5.4 to 83.7% for German Shepherd Dogs. On the basis of logistic regression modeling for determining normal versus abnormal hip status for all 4 breeds, cutoff points for NA were < 105° and PC were < 50%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study indicate that cutoff points of NA of 105° and PC of 50% do not differentiate normal versus dysplastic hip status. Each of the 4 breeds had different values for NA and PC that distinguished normal from dysplastic hip status. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1492–1500)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare blood glucose concentrations obtained using a point-of-care (POC) analyzer, 5 portable blood glucose meters (PBGM), and a color reagent test strip with concentrations obtained using a reference method, and to compare glucose concentrations obtained using fresh blood samples in the PBGM with concentrations obtained using blood anticoagulated with lithium heparin.

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—110 blood samples from 34 dogs; glucose concentration of the samples ranged from 41 to 596 mg/dl.

Procedure—Logistic regression was used to compare blood glucose concentrations obtained with the various devices with reference method concentrations. Ease of use was evaluated subjectively. Percentage of times a clinical decision would have been altered if results of each of these methods had been used, rather than results of the reference method, was calculated.

Results—For 3 of the PBGM, blood glucose concentrations obtained with fresh blood were not significantly different from concentrations obtained with blood samples anticoagulated with lithium heparin. None of the devices provided results statistically equivalent to results of the reference method, but the POC analyzer was more accurate than the others. For some samples, reliance on results of the PBGM or the color test strip would have resulted in erroneous clinical decisions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although commercially available PBGM and color test strips provided blood glucose concentrations reasonably close to those obtained with reference methods, some devices were more accurate than others. Use of results from these devices could lead to erroneous clinical decisions in some cases. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:198–202)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical characteristics and mode of inheritance of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in English Springer Spaniels.

Design—Original study.

Animals—45 dogs with IE and 74 siblings and their respective parents.

Procedure—IE was diagnosed on the basis of age at the time of seizure onset and results of laboratory testing and neurologic examinations. Simple segregation analysis was performed with the Davie method.

Results—Median age at the onset of seizures was 3 years; however, 9 (20%) dogs were between 5 and 6 years old at the time of the onset of seizures. Twentyone dogs (47%) had generalized seizures, and 24 (53%) had focal onset seizures. Results of segregation analysis were consistent with partially penetrant autosomal recessive or polygenic inheritance. Simulated linkage indicated that there was a 58% chance of obtaining suggestive linkage with the available pedigrees.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggest that in English Springer Spaniels, IE segregates in a manner that is consistent with partially penetrant autosomal recessive inheritance (ie, a single major locus with modifying genes) or polygenic inheritance. Given enough families with accurate phenotypic information and available DNA, it should be possible to use genetic linkage analysis to identify chromosomal segments containing the causative gene or genes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:54–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association