Objective—To determine the distribution of
Escherichia coli O157:H7 in pasture-based cattle production
Sample Population—Two 100-km2 agricultural areas
consisting of 207 pasture, 14 beef-confinement, and
3 dairy locations within 24 cattle operations.
Procedure—13,726 samples from cattle, wildlife, and
water sources were obtained during an 11-month
period. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified by
use of culture and polymerase chain reaction assays
and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
Results—Odds of recovering E coli O157:H7 from
feeder-aged cattle were > 4 times the odds for cowcalf
or dairy cattle. There was no difference in prevalence
for pastured versus confined cattle after controlling
for production age group. Number of samples
collected (37 to 4,829), samples that yielded E
coli O157:H7 (0 to 53), and PFGE subtypes (0 to 48)
for each operation varied and were highly correlated.
Although most PFGE subtypes were only
detected once, 17 subtypes were detected on more
than 1 operation. Ten of 12 operations at which E
coli O157:H7 was detected had at least 1 subtype
that also was detected on another operation. We
did not detect differences in the probability of having
the same subtype for adjacent operations, nonadjacent
operations in the same study area, or operations
in the other study area.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Strategies
aimed at controlling E coli O157:H7 and specific subtypes
should account for the widespread distribution
and higher prevalence in feeder-aged cattle regardless
of production environment and the fact that adjacent
and distant cattle operations can have similar subtypes.
(Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1367–1376)
Procedures—274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated.
Results—Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members’ job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.
Objective—To describe the frequency and distribution
of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the feces and environment
of cow-calf herds housed on pasture.
Sample Population—Fecal and water samples for 10
cow-calf farms in Kansas.
Procedure—Fecal and water samples were obtained
monthly throughout a 1-year period (3,152 fecal samples
from 2,058 cattle; 199 water samples).
Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fecal and water samples
was determined, using microbial culture.
Results—Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in
40 of 3,152 (1.3%) fecal samples, and 40 of 2,058
(1.9%) cattle had ≥ 1 sample with E coli. Fecal shedding
by specific cattle was transient; none of the cattle
had E coli in more than 1 sample. Significant differences
were not detected in overall prevalence
among farms. However, significant differences were
detected in prevalence among sample collection
dates. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in 3 of
199 (1.5%) water samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Implementing
control strategies for E coli O157:H7 at all
levels of the cattle industry will decrease the risk of
this organism entering the human food chain.
Devising effective on-farm strategies to control E coli
O157:H7 in cow-calf herds will require an understanding
of the epidemiologic characteristics of this
pathogen. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1375–1379)