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Summary

Transcolonic portal scintigraphy was used to evaluate immediate and long-term changes in shunt blood flow after partial ligation of single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in 8 dogs. Scintigraphy was performed before surgery, within the first 7 days after surgery, and 3 to 9 months after surgery. Shunt fraction values for this group of dogs before surgery ranged from 67 to 87% (normal reference range, ≤ 15%). On the basis of postoperative scintigraphy, 4 dogs had immediate and lasting occlusion of shunt blood flow (shunt fraction, ≤ 15%). One dog had a shunt fraction value within the reference range immediately after surgery, had evidence of recurrent shunt blood flow (shunt fraction, 23%) at 3 months after surgery, and again had a shunt fraction value within the reference range 9 months after surgery. Persistent, though reduced, shunt blood flow (shunt fractions, 23 and 2 7%) was evident immediately after surgery in 2 dogs. One of these dogs had a shunt fraction within the reference range 3 months after surgery, whereas shunt blood flow in the other dog had increased to 41%. One dog had no appreciable change in shunt blood flow immediately after surgery (shunt fraction, 70%), but the shunt fraction value had decreased to 41% at the time of the final scintigraphic examination.

As assessed by transcolonic portal scintigraphy, partial single extrahepatic portosystemic ligation caused a significant decrease in mean shunt blood flow in this group of 8 dogs and resulted in eventual shunt occlusion in a majority of the dogs (6 of 8 dogs). Partial ligation with progressive attenuation of shunt blood flow may obviate the need to perform additional surgery.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To detect contamination of wound sites from surgical handling of excised tissues during total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in dogs, and to compare susceptibility of bacterial isolates to cefazolin with susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents.

Design

Prospective clinical study.

Animals

13 dogs

Procedure

Dogs were treated surgically for otitis externa and media via total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy. Specimens for aerobic bacterial culture were obtained from SC tissue immediately following skin incision, tissues excised from the osseous bulla (after transection of the horizontal ear canal and lateral bulla osteotomy), and from SC tissue prior to skin closure. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates to various antibiotics was determined by use of a broth dilution assay.

Results

There was a significant association between isolation of Streptococcus canis and Escherichia coli from specimens from the osseous bulla and specimens from the SC tissues prior to skin closure, indicating contamination of the SC tissues during surgery. Seventy percent of bacterial isolates were susceptible to cefazolin.

Clinical Implications

Measures to limit bacterial contamination resulting from tissue handling during total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy are necessary. Bactériologic culture of tissue of the osseous bulla and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility are recommended. Administration of cefazolin alone may not be efficacious for antimicrobial prophylaxis. (J Am Vet Med Asooc 1999;214:1641-1643)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Technetium-99m sulfur colloid scintigraphy was used to study alterations of reticuloendothelial function in 7 dogs with experimentally induced biliary cirrhosis and portosystemic shunting. Scintigraphic studies were performed before and 6 weeks after common bile duct ligation. Radiocolloid plasma clearance rate was determined by measuring activity in plasma samples and by analyzing the rate of liver uptake on dynamic scintigraphic image sequences. Percentage of uptake in the liver, spleen, and lungs, as well as the ratio of hepatic-to-extrahepatic uptake, was determined from static equilibrium images. Relative to preoperative values, there were significant decreases in plasma clearance rate, percentage of fiver uptake, and ratio of hepatic-to-extrahepatic uptake and significant increases in percentage of spleen and lung uptake on postoperative studies.

The mechanism of technetium-99m-labeled sulfur colloid extraction by the liver is different from that of other radiocolloids; it does not require active phagocytosis or pinocytosis. Thus, fiver uptake of this tracer principally reflects effective liver blood flow. Portosystemic shunting was documented in these dogs at the time of the postoperative radiocolloid scans, and we believed was responsible for the decrease in liver reticuloendothelial activity. Possible mechanisms for the increased splenic and pulmonary reticuloendothelial activities are discussed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To examine the clinical response to topical administration of clotrimazole in dogs with nasal aspergillosis, to compare effect of surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters used for administration on outcome, and to examine whether subjective scoring of computed tomographic images can predict outcome.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

60 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.

Procedure

Information including signalment, history, diagnostics, treatment method, and outcome was retrieved from medical records of dogs with nasal aspergillosis treated between 1990 and 1996 at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine or cooperating referral practices. Final outcome was determined by telephone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians. Images obtained before treatment were subjectively assessed to develop an algorithm for predicting outcome.

Results

Clotrimazole solution (1 %) was infused during a 1-hour period via catheters surgically placed in the frontal sinus and nose (27 dogs) and via nonsurgically placed catheters in the nose (18). An additional 15 dogs received 2 to 4 infusions by either route. Topical administration of clotrimazole resulted in resolution of clinical disease in 65% of dogs after 1 treatment and 87% of dogs after one or more treatments. The scoring system correctly classified dogs with unfavorable and favorable responses 71 to 78% and 79 to 93% of the time, respectively.

Clinical Implications

Topical administration of clotrimazole, using either technique, was an effective treatment for nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Use of non-invasive intranasal infusion of clotrimazole eliminated the need for surgical trephination of frontal sinuses in many dogs and was associated with fewer complications.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:501-506)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association