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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate clinical and histologic effects of surgically created urethral intussusception and determine whether it creates a high-pressure zone that resists passive urine flow in clinically normal dogs.


8 healthy adult sexually intact female dogs.


Urethral pressure profilometry was used to measure maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and functional profile length (FPL) in dogs sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and atropine before and 2, 4, 7, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days after surgery. Cystourethral leak point pressure (CLPP) and cystourethral leak point volume (CLPV) were determined in anesthetized dogs immediately before and after surgery. Dogs were assigned to 4 groups of 2 dogs each; groups were euthanatized 4, 14, 28, and 90 days later, and representative tissues were examined.


Dog 1 developed complete postoperative urethral obstruction. The procedure was altered, and all dogs recovered without complication. Mild inflammation attributable to surgical manipulation, but not ischemic damage or reduction of the intussusception, was evident. Comparison of preoperative MUCP and FPL with postoperative values did not yield significant differences. Immediate postoperative CLPP and CLPV were significantly higher than preoperative values, but were not significantly increased at euthanasia. A distinct but nonsignificant pressure spike was observed in postoperative urethral pressure profiles and persisted in 7 of 8 dogs.


Urethral intussusception does not have deleterious effects when performed as described. Urodynamic data do not support the premise that urethral intussusception will create a high-pressure zone in the urethra that will resist passive urine flow long term in clinically normal dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:904–912)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Serum bile acid (SBA) values were obtained in 20 dogs, 2.5 to 60 months (mean, 18.6 months) after surgery for occlusion of a congenital portosystemic shunt. The SBA values obtained after food was withheld were significantly (P < 0.005) reduced at follow-up, compared with preoperative values. In 85% of the dogs (17/20), response to surgery was graded by the owners as excellent or good, although most dogs had abnormal SBA values at follow-up. Significant difference in clinical results or follow-up SBA values was not found in dogs that had complete or partial occlusion of the shunting vessel. Correlation between clinical results and SBA values also was not detected. Dogs that were > 2 years old at the time of diagnosis and surgery had a significantly (P = 0.012) poorer clinical result than that of dogs < 1 year old.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate use of a caudoventral-craniodorsal oblique radiographic view made at 45° to the frontal plane (H view) for assessment of the pectoral (thoracic) girdle in raptors.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

Animals—24 raptors suspected to have a fracture of the thoracic girdle.

Procedures—Standard ventrodorsal and H views were obtained for all birds. Radiographs were evaluated twice by a radiologist blinded to the final diagnosis, with each view first evaluated independently and views then evaluated in combination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated, with results of surgery or necropsy used as the gold standard.

Results—9 birds had thoracic girdle fractures; fractures were correctly identified in 8 of these 9 birds on the ventrodorsal view alone, 7 of these 9 birds on the H view alone, and all 9 birds on the 2 views in combination. Fifteen birds did not have thoracic girdle fractures; radiographs were correctly classified in 12 of these 15 birds when the ventrodorsal view was evaluated alone, all 15 birds when the H view was evaluated alone, and 14 of these 15 birds when the 2 views were evaluated in combination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the H view or the addition of the H view to the VD view could be useful in raptors suspected to have fractures of the thoracic girdle. Agreement with the gold standard (ie, fracture present or absent) was higher with the H view and combination of views than with the ventrodorsal view alone.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association