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  • Author or Editor: Jamie Anderson x
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Abstract

Lesions in the oral cavity of dogs can be erythematous, leukoplakic, or pigmented in coloration. The diagnosis of oral erosions, ulcers, and white lesions in contrast to pigmented lesions in veterinary practice can be challenging. The most benign-looking oral ulcers can be associated with local malignant or systemic disease. Many factors are important in the evaluation and correct diagnosis of oral lesions, including medical and drug history, description of the lesion, number of lesions, depth of the lesion, biopsy technique, and correct histologic interpretation. The goal of this paper is to create a decision tree to guide the classification and proper diagnosis of canine oral mucosal lesions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Twenty-six clinically normal colostrum-fed dairy calves were allotted to 5 groups. Calves of groups 1 and 2 served as nonvaccinated controls and were challenge-exposed with variable numbers of organisms. Group-3 calves were vaccinated SC with a modified Salmonella typhimurium bacterin. The bacterin was composed of killed acid-hydrolyzed S typhimurium G30/C21 (Re-mutant) whole cells coated with alkali-hydrolyzed S typhimurium LT-2 lipopolysaccharide, as antigen, and monophosphoryl lipid A, as adjuvant. Calves of groups 4 and 5 were vaccinated with a 2% mineral oil-in-water emulsion containing lipopolysaccharide as antigen and monophosphoryl lipid A and trehalose 6-6′-dimycolate as adjuvants. Calves of groups 3-5 were vaccinated at 2 weeks of age and again at 4 or 6 weeks of age. Adverse reactions were not observed after vaccination. Calves were challenge-exposed orally at 6 or 8 weeks of age with 1.5 × 1011 (groups 1 and 4), or 3.0 × 1011 (groups 2, 3, and 5) colony-forming units of S typhimurium UCD 108-11.

Mortality after challenge exposure was 2 of 5 group-1 calves; 4 of 5 group-2 calves; 5 of 6 group-3 calves; 1 of 5 group-4 calves; and 4 of 5 group-5 calves. Statistical difference between calves of similarly challenge-exposed groups was not evident, indicating failure of either vaccine to protect calves of this age from oral challenge exposure with virulent S typhimurium.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Immune-mediated and autoimmune diseases of the skin often present with oral cavity involvement. Autoimmune subepidermal blistering diseases and pemphigus vulgaris are classic examples. While the primary lesions (vesicles and bullae) are relatively specific, these fragile lesions evolve rapidly into erosions and ulcers, which are lesion types that overlap with many diseases. Furthermore, some immune-mediated diseases such as severe adverse drug reactions, lupus diseases, canine uveodermatological syndrome, and vasculitis, may or may not involve the oral cavity, and often nonoral clinical manifestations are more diagnostic. In these situations, disease knowledge combined with signalment, lesion distribution, and history help to narrow the differentials. Surgical biopsy is required for confirmation in most diseases, while immunosuppressive treatments most typically involve glucocorticoids with or without nonsteroidal immunosuppressants.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Twenty-four healthy dogs > 8 years old were recruited. In each instance, arterial blood gas tensions were analyzed. The alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient (P[a-a]o 2) was calculated to assess adequacy of pulmonary gas exchange. Thoracic radiographs were evaluated to ensure lack of visible signs of pulmonary disease and that lung features were similar to those in aged dogs of previous reports. Unlike findings in aged human beings, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao 2) was not decreased in this group of aged dogs (mean ± sd, 102.9 ± 7.8 mm of Hg). Similarly, P[a-a] o 2 also was not increased. The thoracic radiographic findings were consistent with those of previous reports of pulmonary changes in aged dogs. The extent of radiographic abnormalities and the Pa o 2 were not correlated.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research