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Abstract

Objective—To test the hypotheses that preparation method, exposure to shear force, and exposure to collagen affect the release of growth factors from equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

Sample Population—PRP obtained from 6 horses.

Procedures—PRP was prepared via 2 preparation methods (tube and automated) and subjected to 6 treatment conditions (resting, detergent, exposure to shear via 21- and 25-gauge needles, and exposure to collagen [10 and 20 μg/mL]). Concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, isoform BB (PDGF-BB); transforming growth factor β, isoform 1 (TGFβ1); and insulin-like growth factor, isoform 1 (IGF-1) were quantified by use of ELISAs. Statistical analysis was conducted via repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—Platelet numbers were significantly higher in tube-prepared PRP than in automated-prepared PRP Growth factor concentrations did not differ significantly between preparation methods. Mean PDGF-BB concentration ranged from 134 to 7,157 pg/mL, mean TGFβ1 concentration ranged from 1,153 to 22,677 pg/mL, and mean IGF-1 concentration ranged from 150 to 280 ng/mL. Shear force did not affect growth factor concentrations. Dose-dependent increases in PDGF-BB and TGFβ1 were detected in response to collagen, but equalled only 10% of the estimated total platelet content. Concentrations of IGF-1 were not significantly different among treatments and negative or positive control treatments. Serum concentrations of PDGF-BB and TGFβ1 exceeded concentrations in PRP for most treatment conditions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Release of growth factors from equine PRP was negligible as a result of the injection process alone. Investigation of platelet-activation protocols is warranted to potentially enhance PRP treatment efficacy in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare fiber diameter, pore area, compressive stiffness, gelation properties, and selected growth factor content of platelet-rich fibrin gels (PRFGs) and conventional fibrin gels (FGs).

Sample—PRFGs and conventional FGs prepared from the blood of 10 healthy horses.

Procedures—Autologous fibrinogen was used to form conventional FGs. The PRFGs were formed from autologous platelet-rich plasma of various platelet concentrations (100 × 103 platelets/μL, 250 × 103 platelets/μL, 500 × 103 platelets/μL, and 1,000 × 103 platelets/μL). All gels contained an identical fibrinogen concentration (20 mg/mL). Fiber diameter and pore area were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Maximum gelation rate was assessed with spectrophotometry, and gel stiffness was determined by measuring the compressive modulus. Gel weights were measured serially over 14 days as an index of contraction (volume loss). Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 concentrations were quantified with ELISAs.

Results—Fiber diameters were significantly larger and mean pore areas were significantly smaller in PRFGs than in conventional FGs. Gel weight decreased significantly over time, differed significantly between PRFGs and conventional FGs, and was significantly correlated with platelet concentration. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 concentrations were highest in gels and releasates derived from 1,000 × 103 platelets/μL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The inclusion of platelets in FGs altered the architecture and increased the growth factor content of the resulting scaffold. Platelets may represent a useful means of modifying these gels for applications in veterinary and human regenerative medicine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and radiographic features of subchondral cystic lesions (SCL) of the proximal extremity of the tibia in horses that could be used to classify these lesions as being related to osteochondrosis or osteoarthritis and to evaluate results of surgical debridement.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 horses with 14 SCL.

Procedure—Medical records and radiographs obtained before and after treatment were reviewed.

Results—In 6 young horses (8 lesions), SCL were considered to be related to osteochondrosis; all involved the lateral tibial condyle. The remaining 6 horses were mature and had radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis in addition to SCL. Arthroscopic debridement was performed in 4 horses in which lesions were considered to be a result of osteochondrosis and in 3 horses with osteoarthritis. Three horses in which SCL were considered to be a result of osteochondrosis performed athletically after debridement. Two horses with moderate osteoarthritis returned to work after arthroscopic debridement but at a lower level of athletic performance. One horse with SCL related to osteochondrosis responded to medical treatment and went on to race.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that arthroscopic debridement of SCL is feasible in horses in which lesions involve the cranial portion of the lateral or medial tibial condyle, and that treated horses may be able to perform athletically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:408–413)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether CT provides unique information about the treatment or prognosis for horses with ethmoid hematoma (EH).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 horses with EH.

Procedures—Horses with a diagnosis of EH that had undergone a diagnostic CT study were included. Clinical features, treatment, outcome, radiographic and CT images, and histologic specimens were reviewed.

Results—CT provided new diagnostic information that affected treatment in 10 of 16 horses. Bilateral disease occurred in 8 of 16 horses and was undetected in 5 horses prior to CT. Paranasal sinus involvement occurred in all horses, but was incompletely defined prior to CT in 7 of 16 horses. The sphenopalatine sinus was affected in 6 of 16 horses as detected on CT; 4 of 6 of these were bilaterally affected. Medical and surgical treatments were performed. Six of 10 horses had a successful outcome, with recurrence in 4 of 10. Five of 6 patients in which treatment addressed all lesion sites identified by CT had a successful outcome. Bilateral disease did not confer a poor prognosis when all affected sites were treated. Sphenopalatine sinus involvement may have been associated with recurrence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT provided anatomic information that may facilitate effective treatment of horses with EH, particularly in patients with bilateral disease and paranasal sinus involvement. Computed tomography is recommended for patients in which the lesion cannot be viewed endoscopically, when sinus involvement or multifocal disease are suspected, or when the lesion has been unresponsive to treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association