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Objective

To evaluate a combined cycloablative and gonioimplantation technique for treatment of glaucoma in dogs.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

18 adult dogs with glaucoma.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs that received a valved gonioimplant and a cyclodestructive procedure (cyclocryoablation or diode laser cyclophotocoagulation) during a 6-year period were reviewed. Retention of vision and intraocular pressure control were assessed, as well as number and nature of complications.

Results

19 eyes of 18 dogs received a valved gonioimplant and either cyclocryoablation (n = 12) or diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (7). At ≥ 1 year after surgery, 11 of 19 eyes had vision and 14 of 19 eyes had intraocular pressure < 25 mm Hg. Two dogs (2 eyes) were lost to follow-up 3 and 6 months after surgery. Despite the alternative route for aqueous humor flow created by the gonioimplant, 7 eyes had increased intraocular pressure (27 to 61 mm Hg) < 24 hours after surgery. Other complications included excessive intraocular fibrin, focal retinal detachment, corneal ulcer, retinal hemorrhage, cataract, and implant migration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Combined cycloablation and gonioimplantation appears to be a promising technique for retention of vision and control of intraocular pressure in dogs with glaucoma. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1469–1472)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether intracameral injection of carbachol at the completion of phacoemulsification in dogs would prevent the increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) that can develop during the first 24 hours after surgery.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

32 adult dogs undergoing elective unilateral or bilateral phacoemulsification.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups with 8 dogs/group: phacoemulsification and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of 0.01 % carbachol at the end of surgery; phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of 0.01 % carbachol; phacoemulsification and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of balanced salt solution; and phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and intracameral administration of 0.5 ml of balanced salt solution. Intraocular pressure was measured at 3 and 6 hours and the morning after surgery. Aqueous flare was also measured 6 hours and the morning after surgery.

Results

None of the dogs treated with carbachol developed postoperative ocular hypertension (ie, IOP > 27 mm of Hg), whereas 12 of 16 control dogs had ocular hypertension 3 hours after surgery. Intraocular pressure 3 hours after surgery was not significantly associated with phacoemulsification time or phacoemulsification power or with whether the dog received an intraocular lens implant. Severity of aqueous flare was similar for treated and control dogs.

Clinical Implications

Results suggested that intracameral administration of 0.01 % carbachol at the end of surgery was a safe and efficacious method of preventing the postoperative increase in IOP associated with phacoemulsification in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1885–1888)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess ophthalmologic features and ocular lesions in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV).

Design—Original study.

Animals—13 hawks.

Procedures—All hawks underwent complete ophthalmic examinations including slit lamp biomicroscopy and binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy. Eleven hawks were euthanized because of a grave prognosis; complete necropsies were performed. Eyes, brain, heart, and kidneys were processed for histologic and immunohistochemical examinations. Pooled tissue homogenates and aqueous humor samples were assessed for WNV nucleic acid via PCR assay, and anti-WNV antibody titers in aqueous humor and plasma were determined.

Results—All birds had similar funduscopic abnormalities including exudative chorioretinal lesions and chorioretinal scarring in a geographic or linear pattern. Eleven birds were euthanized, and 2 birds were released. Plasma from both released hawks and plasma and aqueous humor of all euthanized hawks that were evaluated contained anti-WNV antibodies. Except for 1 hawk, all euthanized hawks had WNV-associated disease (determined via detection of WNV antigen or nucleic acid in at least 1 organ). Histopathologic ocular abnormalities, most commonly pectenitis, were detected in all euthanized birds; several birds had segmental choroiditis, often with corresponding segmental retinal atrophy. West Nile virus antigen was detected in the retinas of 9 of the euthanized birds. In 2 hawks, WNV antigen was detected in the retina only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that funduscopically detectable chorioretinal lesions appear to be associated with WNV disease in hawks. Detection of ocular lesions may aid in antemortem or postmortem diagnosis of this condition.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association