Objective—To develop and psychometrically test an owner self-administered questionnaire designed to assess severity and impact of chronic pain in dogs with osteoarthritis.
Sample Population—70 owners of dogs with osteoarthritis and 50 owners of clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Standard methods for the stepwise development and testing of instruments designed to assess subjective states were used. Items were generated through focus groups and an expert panel. Items were tested for readability and ambiguity, and poorly performing items were removed. The reduced set of items was subjected to factor analysis, reliability testing, and validity testing.
Results—Severity of pain and interference with function were 2 factors identified and named on the basis of the items contained in them. Cronbach's α was 0.93 and 0.89, respectively, suggesting that the items in each factor could be assessed as a group to compute factor scores (ie, severity score and interference score). The test-retest analysis revealed κ values of 0.75 for the severity score and 0.81 for the interference score. Scores correlated moderately well (r = 0.51 and 0.50, respectively) with the overall quality-of-life (QOL) question, such that as severity and interference scores increased, QOL decreased. Clinically normal dogs had significantly lower severity and interference scores than dogs with osteoarthritis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A psychometrically sound instrument was developed. Responsiveness testing must be conducted to determine whether the questionnaire will be useful in reliably obtaining quantifiable assessments from owners regarding the severity and impact of chronic pain and its treatment on dogs with osteoarthritis.
Procedures—Owners completed the CBPI on day 0. Dogs received carprofen or a placebo on days 1 through 14. Owners completed the CBPI again on day 14. Pain severity and pain interference scores from the CBPI were calculated, and the change from day 0 to day 14 was assessed within each group and between groups.
Results—No significant differences were detected in median scores for pain severity (3.50 and 3.25 on days 0 and 14, respectively) and pain interference (3.92 and 3.25 on days 0 and 14, respectively) in dogs receiving the placebo. Dogs receiving carprofen had significant changes in median scores for pain severity (4.25 to 2.25 on days 0 and 14, respectively) and pain interference (4.33 to 2.67 on days 0 and 14, respectively). There was a significantly greater improvement in pain severity and pain interference scores in dogs treated with carprofen, compared with improvement in scores for dogs receiving the placebo.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The CBPI was able to detect improvements in pain scores in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with an NSAID or a placebo. These results, in combination with previous reliability and validity testing, support the use of the CBPI to obtain quantifiable assessments from owners regarding the severity and impact of chronic pain and treatment for dogs with osteoarthritis.
Objective—To characterize clinical signs and lesions
and identify the etiologic agent associated with epizootic
catarrhal enteritis in domestic ferrets.
Animals—119 ferrets with epizootic diarrhea of presumed
viral cause and 5 control ferrets.
Procedure—Clinical records and biopsy or necropsy
specimens of ferrets with presumed epizootic
catarrhal enteritis were reviewed. Immunohistochemical
staining for coronavirus antigen was performed
on paraffin-embedded tissues from approximately
10% of affected ferrets to identify viral antigen
and determine its distribution. Transmission electron
microscopy was performed on fecal samples and sections
of jejunum. Virus isolation studies as well as
immunofluorescent tests for other similar viruses
Results—Characteristic microscopic lesions consistent
with intestinal coronavirus infection (vacuolar
degeneration and necrosis of villus enterocytes; villus
atrophy, fusion, and blunting; and lymphocytic enteritis)
were consistently detected in affected ferrets.
Coronavirus particles were identified in feces and jejunal
enterocytes by use of transmission electron
microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining of jejunal
sections revealed coronavirus antigens. Antigen staining
was not detected in healthy ferrets or ferrets with
other gastrointestinal tract diseases. Virus isolation
was unsuccessful, and other similar viruses were not
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results
strongly implicate a coronavirus as the causative
agent of epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets.
Diagnosis may be made on the basis of a combination
of historical, clinical, and microscopic findings. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:526–530)