Objective—To assess perceptions of state public
health officers and state veterinarians in the United
States regarding the risks of bioterrorism and determine
the degree of support provided for activities
related to bioterrorism.
Sample Population—State public health officers and
Procedure—A questionnaire was sent between April
and June 2001 to the state public health officer and
state veterinarian in each of the 50 states and the
District of Columbia.
Results—Perceptions of the risk of bioterrorism attacks
were similar for state public health officers and state veterinarians.
Veterinarians perceived the risks associated
with foot-and-mouth disease and Newcastle disease to
be higher than did physicians. State veterinarians perceived
the risks associated with an anthrax hoax, brucellosis,
and ricin toxicosis to be lower than did state
public health officers. Risk posed by agents that affected
animals exclusively was perceived to be higher than
risk posed by agents that affected humans exclusively
and zoonotic agents. Number of full-time-equivalent
positions devoted to bioterrorism surveillance and percentage
of the budget devoted to bioterrorism activities
were significantly lower for offices run by state veterinarians
than for offices run by state public health officers.
State veterinarians were significantly less likely to
be aware of actual bioterrorism incidents within their
state or district than were state public health officers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Provision of additional
resources to state veterinarians and explicit integration
of their expertise and surveillance capabilities
may be important to effectively mitigate the risk of bioterrorism.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1782–1787)
Objective—To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007.
Procedures—Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence.
Results—Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71 %) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.
Objective—To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.
Sample Population—Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds.
Procedure—Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of χ2 and logistic regression techniques.
Results—Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.