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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine changes in splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio during experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.

Animals—6 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure—Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed in anesthetized dogs. Baseline measurements of arterial blood pressure, aortic blood flow, portal vein blood flow, and portal vein pressure were acquired, and arterial, venous, and portal vein blood samples were obtained to determine systemic and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratios. The portal vein was gradually occluded until a pressure of 18 cm of H2O was reached; this pressure was maintained for 30 minutes, and measurements and collection of blood samples were repeated.

Results—Portal vein blood flow decreased significantly from 457 ± 136 ml/min before to 266 ± 83 ml/min after induction of portal hypertension. Oxygen content in the portal vein significantly decreased from 12.3 ± 1.85 to 8.2 ± 2.31%, and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio significantly increased from 15.8 ± 6.2 to 37.4 ± 10.9% during portal hypertension. There was a significant inverse correlation between portal vein blood flow and splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio at baseline and during portal hypertension.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An increase in splanchnic oxygen extraction ratio is evident with partial attenuation of the portal vein and the concurrent decrease in portal vein blood flow. Correlation of oxygen extraction ratio with portal vein blood flow may be a more important indicator for determination of an endpoint to prevent congestion and ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas during ligation of portosystemic shunts. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:15–18)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of sevoflurane on cardiac energetic and hemodynamic parameters in ferrets.

Animals—7 healthy domesticated ferrets.

Procedure—Sevoflurane was used as the sole anesthetic agent for general anesthesia in ferrets. Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed to permit instrumentation. Myocardial blood flow was determined by use of colored microsphere technology. Measurements and blood samples were obtained at 1.25%, 2.5%, and 3.75% expired concentration of sevoflurane.

Results—A dose-dependent decrease in arterial blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, systemic vascular resistance, aortic flow, and dp/dt (an index of contractility) was detected as expired concentration of sevoflurane increased. Heart rate, central venous pressure, coronary vascular resistance, myocardial oxygen extraction ratio, and (the time constant of relaxation) were unchanged. Cardiac external work decreased, as did myocardial oxygen consumption, causing increased cardiac efficiency at higher concentrations of sevoflurane.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane caused minimal and predictable cardiovascular effects in ferrets without increasing myocardial metabolic demands. Data obtained from this study have not been previously reported for a species that is being commonly used in cardiovascular research. These findings also support use of sevoflurane as a safe inhalant anesthetic in ferrets for clinical and research settings. ( Am J Vet Res 2004:65:653–658)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

An in-circuit vaporizer for delivery of isoflurane was evaluated. The isoflurane concentration within an isolated circle breathing circuit was determined for 1 hour in 6 in-the-circuit vaporizers with the wicks removed. A mechanical ventilator and artificial lung were connected to the circuit. Isoflurane concentration increased as vaporizer setting increased, and delivered concentration (%) at 60 minutes ( X ¯ ± sem) ranged from 0.46 ± 0.10 at tap setting 1 to 3.67 ± 0.30 at setting 5. Temperature of the isoflurane did not change.

Cardiovascular and respiratory function were maintained within a clinically acceptable range in 6 dogs anesthetized with thiamylal and maintained with 1.87% end-tidal isoflurane delivered from the in-circuit vaporizer during spontaneous ventilation, controlled ventilation, and closed-circuit anesthesia. The range of vaporizer tap settings ( X ¯ ± sem) was lower during closed-system anesthesia (2.5 ± 0.1 to 3.5 ± 0.6) and during controlled ventilation (2.6 ± 0.2 to 3.3 ± 0.2) than during semi-closed system anesthesia (5.4 ± 0.3 to 6.8 ± 0.4).

The in-circuit vaporizer was used to deliver isoflurane to 36 dogs anesthetized for a variety of surgical and medical procedures. Ventilation was spontaneous, assisted, and in 1 instance, controlled. Cardiovascular function, respiratory function, and recovery times were within clinically acceptable ranges. The initial vaporizer tap setting ( X ¯ ± sem) was 8.2 ± 0.4, and this corresponded to an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 3.5 ± 0.6. The range of vaporizer settings during the maintenance phase ( X ¯ ± sem) was 2.8 ± 0.5 to 4.6 ± 1.9. This corresponded to an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.2 ± 0.1 to 1.8 ± 0.1%.

This study documents that when appropriate guidelines are followed and limitations understood, the in-circle vaporizer is suitable for delivery of isoflurane to dogs undergoing a variety of surgical and medical procedures. Guidelines include removal of the wick, attention to the relatively rapid increase of anesthetic depth during the first 5 minutes of anesthesia, and the need to decrease the setting of the vaporizer control lever if assisted or controlled ventilation is used, or if closed system flow rates are used. Limitations include unpredictability of output with changing ambient temperature and difficulty adapting its use with semi-open breathing systems such as the t-piece or Bain coaxial circuit.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effect of hypercapnia on the arrhythmo-genic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was investigated in 14 horses. Anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin and thiamylal sodium and was maintained at an end-tidal halothane concentration between 0.86 and 0.92%. Base-apex ECG, cardiac output, and facial artery blood pressure were measured and recorded. The ADE was determined at normocapnia (arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [Paco2 = 35 to 45 mm of Hg), at hypercapnia (Paco2 = 70 to 80 mm of Hg), and after return to normocapnia. Epinephrine was infused at arithmetically spaced increasing rates (initial rate = 0.25 μg/kg of body weight/min) for a maximum of 10 minutes. The ADE was defined as the lowest epinephrine infusion rate, to the nearest 0.25 μg/kg/min, at which 4 premature ventricular complexes occurred in a 15-second period. The ADE (mean ± SD) during hypercapnia (1.04 ± 0.23 μg/kg/min) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than the ADE at normocapnia (1.35 ± 0.38 μg/kg/min), whereas the ADE after return to normocapnia (1.17 ± 0.22 μg/kg/min) was not significantly different from those during normocapnia or hypercapnia. Baseline systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and cardiac output decreased after return to normocapnia. Significant differences were not found in arterial partial pressure of O2 (PaO2) or in base excess during the experiment. Two horses developed ventricular fibrillation and died during normocapnic determinations of ADE. Hypercapnia was associated with an increased risk of developing ventricular arrhythmias in horses anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiamylal sodium, and halothane.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of xylazine on the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ade) was studied in 9 horses. Anesthesia was induced by administration of guaifenesin (50 mg/kg of body weight, iv) followed by thiamylal (4 to 6 mg/kg, iv) and was maintained at 1 minimal alveolar concentration (mac) of halothane (0.89%). Base apex ecg and facial artery pressure were recorded. Epinephrine was infused in a sequence of arithmetically spaced increasing rates (initial rate 0.25 µg/kg/min) for a maximum of 10 minutes. The ade was defined as the lowest epinephrine infusion rate to the nearest 0.25 µg/kg/min at which at least 4 premature ventricular depolarizations occurred in a 15- second period. Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, iv) was administered after the control ade was determined. Xylazine did not significantly alter the ade (control, 1.12 ± 0.38 µg/kg/ min; xylazine, 1.21 ± 0.46 µg/kg/min). Blood pressure increased transiently for 8 minutes after xylazine administration. Baseline systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly different from control baseline pressures and heart rate 15 minutes after xylazine administration. Blood pressure and heart rate increased significantly during control and xylazine ade determinations. Significant differences in pH, Pao2 , Paco2 , or base excess were not observed between baseline and ade in the control or xylazine groups. One horse developed atrial fibrillation, and 2 horses developed ventricular fibrillation during ade determinations.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of one-lung ventilation (OLV) on oxygen delivery (DO2) in anesthetized dogs with a closed thoracic cavity.

Animals—7 clinically normal adult Walker Hound dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized. Catheters were inserted in a dorsal pedal artery and the pulmonary artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency. Data were collected at baseline (PaCO2 of 35 to 45 mm Hg), during two-lung ventilation, and 15 minutes after creating OLV. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were analyzed and calculations performed to obtain DO2 , and values were compared among the various time points by use of an ANOVA for repeated measures.

Results—OLV induced a significant augmentation of shunt fraction that resulted in a significant reduction in PaO2, arterial oxygen saturation, and arterial oxygen content. Cardiac index was not significantly changed. The net result was that DO2 was not significantly affected by OLV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of OLV in healthy dogs does not induce significant changes in DO2, which is the ultimate variable to use when evaluating tissue oxygenation. One-lung ventilation can be initiated safely in dogs before entering the thoracic cavity during surgery. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate OLV in clinically affected patients and variations in age, body position, and type of anesthetic protocol. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:973–977)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects on oxygen delivery (DO2) of 2.5 and 5 cm H2O of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) applied to the dependent lung during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in anesthetized dogs with a closed thoracic cavity.

Animals—7 clinically normal adult Walker Hound dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and catheters were inserted in a dorsal pedal artery and the pulmonary artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency, and data were collected during OLV (baseline), after application of 2.5 cm H2O of PEEP for 15 minutes during OLV, and after application of 5 cm H2O of PEEP for 15 minutes during OLV. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were analyzed and calculations performed to obtain DO2, and values were compared among the various time points by use of an ANOVA for repeated measures.

Results—PEEP induced a significant decrease in shunt fraction that resulted in a significant increase in arterial oxygen saturation. However, it failed to significantly affect arterial oxygen content (CaO2) or cardiac output. Thus, DO2 was not affected in healthy normoxemic dogs as a net result of the application of PEEP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The use of PEEP during OLV in anesthetized dogs with a closed thoracic cavity did not affect DO2. Use of PEEP during OLV in dogs with a closed thoracic cavity is recommended because it does not affect cardiac output and any gain in CaO2 will be beneficial for DO2 in critically ill patients. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:978–983)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research