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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seventy-three horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy underwent cervical vertebral interbody fusion (n = 63) or dorsal laminectomy (n = 10). Neurologic function improved in 77% of horses, and 46% of horses achieved athletic function (racing, race training, or pleasure riding) after cervical vertebral interbody fusion for static and dynamic spinal cord compressive lesions. Neurologic status improved in 4 of 10 horses after dorsal decompression for static compressive spinal cord lesions. The duration of clinical signs prior to surgical intervention was shorter for horses that achieved athletic function or improved by at least 2 neurologic grades than for horses that did not improve in neurologic status or improved 1 neurologic grade after cervical vertebral interbody fusion. The number of cervical spinal cord compressive lesions and age of horses did not affect the long-term surgical outcome of cervical vertebral interbody fusion. Seroma formation, implant failure, right laryngeal hemiplegia, and colitis were nonfatal complications associated with cervical vertebral interbody fusion. Dorsal laminectomy and cervical vertebral interbody fusion of static compressive lesions of the caudal cervical vertebral column were associated with fatal postoperative complications, including vertebral body fracture, spinal cord edema, and implant failure.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of induction of capacitative Ca2+ entry on tone in equine laminar arteries and veins.

Sample Population—Laminar arteries and veins from 6 adult mixed-breed horses.

Procedure—Arteries and veins were isolated and mounted on small vessel myographs for the measurement of isometric tension. Capacitative Ca2+ entry was induced by incubating the vessels with the specific Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (100nM) in a Ca2+- free physiologic salt solution. Capacitative Ca2+ entry–associated contractile responses were determined by the subsequent addition of 2mM Ca2+ to the solution bathing the vessels; in some experiments, either the voltage-gated Ca2+ blocker diltiazem (10µM) or the putative capacitative Ca2+ entry inhibitor trifluoromethylphenylimidazole (300µM) was added to the bathing solution 15 minutes prior to a second 2mM Ca2+ exposure. The Sr2+ permeability of the capacitative Ca2+ entry pathway in laminar vessels was assessed by exposing the vessels to 4mM Sr2+ after induction of capacitative Ca2+ entry with thapsigargin.

Results—Induction of capacitative Ca2+ entry elicited robust contractile responses in laminar veins but did not increase tone in laminar arteries. In laminar veins, capacitative Ca2+ entry–induced contractile responses were unaffected by preincubation with diltiazem, attenuated by trifluoromethylphenylimidazole, and were impermeable to Sr2+.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that induction of capacitative Ca2+ entry elicits vasoconstriction in equine laminar veins but not in laminar arteries and should therefore be considered a potential mechanism by which selective venoconstriction occurs in horses during the development of acute laminitis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1877–1880)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf), including phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes, was performed on 32 Standardbreds with poor race performance and endoscopic examination findings characteristic of inflammatory airway disease (iad). Nucleated cell counts in balf from iad-affected horses were higher than those in control horses; the cytologic profile of balf in affected horses included mixed inflammation, characterized by mild neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. Eosinophil and mast cell counts were not higher in the iad-affected group, compared with those in the control group; however, 4 iad-affected horses had marked eosinophilia (24.7 ± 4.8% SEM) in balf. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in balf obtained from IAD-affected horses revealed a low proportion of CD4-positive cells and B cells, compared with those in the control group; these findings may have been representative of a greater proportion of non-B, non-T cells (null cells) in horses with iad. The cytologic profile of balf obtained from horses with iad differed from that in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that the pathogenesis of inflammation in horses with iad may differ from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish a clinical severity index that correlates severity of body system abnormalities with outcome in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP) and determine the usefulness of serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentration as an objective measure of AP severity.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—61 client-owned dogs with ultrasonographically or histologically confirmed AP.

Procedures—Medical records of AP-affected dogs were reviewed, and signalment, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome (death or discharge from the hospital) were evaluated. The correlation of specific abnormalities in endocrine, hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems; local pancreatic complications; and intestinal integrity were evaluated, and a clinical severity index was developed for AP in dogs. The severity index score was compared with outcome and, for 12 dogs, with serum C-RP concentration.

Results—The clinical severity index had a good correlation with outcome and interval from hospital admission until end point (days until outcome), but there was no difference in days until outcome between survivors and nonsurvivors. All 12 dogs evaluated had high serum C-RP concentration, but this variable was not related to outcome; however, within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, serum C-RP concentration in survivors and nonsurvivors differed significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among AP-affected dogs, the clinical severity index may be useful for treatment comparisons and prediction of intensive management requirements. Serum C-RP concentration was best related to AP severity within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, but daily measurement may be more useful for monitoring progress.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association