OBJECTIVE To determine whether high doses of enalapril and benazepril would be more effective than standard doses of these drugs in suppressing the furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES 2 experiments were conducted; each lasted 10 days, separated by a 2-week washout period. In experiment 1, all dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and enalapril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days (days 0 through 7). In experiment 2, dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and benazepril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days. Effects on the RAAS were determined by assessing serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity on days −1, 3, and 7; serum aldosterone concentration on days −2, −1, 1, 3, and 7; and the urinary aldosterone-creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) in urine collected in the morning and evening of days −2, −1, 1, 3, and 7.
RESULTS High doses of enalapril and benazepril caused significant reductions in serum ACE activity on all days but were not more effective than standard doses used in other studies. Mean UAldo:C remained significantly higher on days 2 through 7, compared with baseline values. Serum aldosterone concentration also increased after drug administration, which mirrored changes in the UAldo:C.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, administration of high doses of enalapril and benazepril significantly inhibited ACE activity, yet did not prevent increases in mean urine and serum aldosterone concentrations resulting from furosemide activation of RAAS. This suggested that aldosterone breakthrough from ACE inhibition was a dose-independent effect of ACE inhibitors.
OBJECTIVE To investigate potential associations between repository radiographic findings and subsequent performance of Quarter Horses competing in cutting events.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
SAMPLE Repository radiographs (ie, radiographs obtained at the time of sale) for 343 client-owned horses.
PROCEDURES Repository radiographic findings were compared with objective measures of performance, including the likelihood of competing; the likelihood of earning money as a 3-year-old, as a 4-year-old, and as a 3- and 4-year-old combined; and the amount of money earned as a 3-year-old, as a 4-year-old, and as a 3- and 4-year-old combined.
RESULTS The presence of mild osteophytes involving the distal aspect of the tarsal joint was significantly associated with lower mean earnings as a 4-year-old. The presence of osteophytes on the dorsoproximal aspect of the middle phalanx of the hind limbs was significantly associated with an increased odds of earning money as a 4-year-old. Radiographic lesions of the medial femoral condyle of the stifle joint were not significantly associated with subsequent performance.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Most abnormalities identified on repository radiographs were not significantly associated with subsequent performance. The significant association between mild tarsal osteophytosis and earnings was unexpected. Results of the present study indicated the need for further investigation of the relationship between radiographic findings and performance outcome in Western performance horses.