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A survey was conducted from 1986 through 1987, for which an ELISA was used to obtain information on the prevalence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in cattle of Florida. Results revealed prevalence of 8.6% in beef cattle and 17.1% in dairy cattle. In beef and dairy cattle, prevalence increased with increasing herd size. It was concluded that ELISA-detectable circulating antibodies to M paratuberculosis are widespread in cattle of Florida.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with microbiological culture for detecting salmonellae in equine fecal samples and equine environmental swab specimens.


Samples and specimens were tested by PCR and microbiological culture.

Sample Population

A fecal sample from each of 152 horses admitted consecutively to the clinic for evaluation by the outpatient service, 282 fecal samples from 110 hospitalized horses that had been submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory, and 313 environmental swab specimens were examined.


Each sample and specimen in the study was tested, using PCR and microbiological culture. Results of PCR and culture were compared.


Significantly (P < 0.001) more fecal samples were positive by PCR than by microbiological culture. 26 of 152 (17.1%) fecal samples collected from horses admitted by the outpatient service were positive by PCR and none was positive by culture. 71 of 110 hospitalized horses were identified as positive by PCR, compared with 11 horses identified as positive by culture. All culture-positive horses were positive by PCR. Of the 11 culture-positive horses, 10 (90.9%) were identified as PCR positive after testing of the first sample submitted, compared with 7 (63.6%) by culture. All PCR-positive horses were detected after a total of 3 samples/horse were submitted, whereas as many as 5 samples/horse was required to identify all culture-positive horses. 8 of 313 environmental specimens were positive by PCR, and none was positive by culture.


The PCR method reported here was more sensitive, more rapid, and required submission of fewer samples or specimens than did microbiological culture for detecting salmonellae. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:780–786)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate chemotactic, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities of bovine and porcine alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to tilmicosin.

Animals—12 healthy calves and 12 healthy pigs.

Procedure—Lungs were obtained immediately after euthanasia; AM were collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage and density gradient centrifugation. Chemotactic activity was evaluated by exposing AM to lipopolysaccharide or macrophage inhibitory peptide during incubation with tilmicosin. Phagocytic activity was evaluated by incubating AM with tilmicosin for 24 hours and then with tilmicosin-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. Bactericidal activity was evaluated by incubating AM with tilmicosin (0, 10, or 20 µg/ml for bovine AM; 0 or 10 µg/ml or 10 µg/ml but washed free of tilmicosin for porcine AM) and then with Mannheimia haemolytica (bovine AM) or with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Pasteurella multocida(porcine AM).

Results—Tilmicosin had no significant effects on chemotactic or phagocytic activities of bovine or porcine AM. The time-course of bactericidal activity was best described by polynomial equations. Time to cessation of bacterial growth and area under the time versus bacterial number curve were significantly affected by incubation of AM with tilmicosin.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results show that bactericidal activity of bovine and porcine AM was enhanced by tilmicosin, but not in proportion to the reported ability of AM to concentrate tilmicosin intracellularly. With or without exposure to tilmicosin, the time-course of bactericidal activity of bovine AM against M haemolytica and of porcine AM against A pleuropneumoniae or P multocida was too complex to be reduced to a simple linear equation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:36–41)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research