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  • Author or Editor: James R. Cook Jr. x
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SUMMARY

Noninvasive determination of anal and genitoanal reflexes was evaluated in clinically normal cats. Thirty adult mixed-breed cats (15 sexually intact or castrated males, 15 sexually intact or spayed females) were sedated by iv administration of ketamine, acetylpromazine, and atropine. Anal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after ipsilateral and contralateral electrical stimulation of the perineal skin. Genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after electrical stimulation of the penis or clitoris. An anal sphincter response to tibial nerve stimulation was attempted.

Anal reflexes from ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations and a genitoanal reflex were detected in all cats. Anal sphincter responses to tibial nerve stimulation were inconsistent (4/30) and were not included in any analyses. Anal reflexes had response latencies of 7.5 to 12.0 ms (ipsilateral stimulation) and 6.5 to 13 ms (contralateral stimulation). Genitoanal reflexes had latencies of 9.0 to 13.0 ms (males) and 6.5 to 9.0 ms (females). Anal reflex latencies were significantly (P < 0.05) longer for contralateral, opposed to ipsilateral, stimulation and were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females. Genitoanal reflex latencies were also significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females, reflecting the more peripheral stimulation site in males.

Anal reflex responses could be recorded in 2 feline clinic patients with such severe perineal trauma that pudendal nerve function could not be manually evaluated. A potentially favorable prognosis was given in each instance on the basis of detection of the response. One cat eventually recovered. The other was euthanatized because of other problems, and the sacral part of the spinal cord, sacral nerve roots, and pudendal nerves were found to be intact at necropsy.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The bulbospongiosus reflex, genitoanal reflex, and nerve conduction velocity of the dorsal nerve of the penis were evaluated in cats. Seven adult sexually intact or castrated male mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the bulbospongiosus (analagous to bulbocavernosus) branch, anal branch, and distal trunk of the pudendal nerve. The bulbospongiosus and genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the bulbospongiosus and anal branches, respectively, by electrical stimulation, in turn, of the distal pudendal trunk and the penis itself. Nerve conduction velocity of the dorsal nerve of the penis was calculated by measuring response latency differences in the anal branch after stimulation of 2 sites on the extruded penis.

The bulbospongiosus reflex had response latencies of 8.1 to 10.3 ms (distal trunk stimulation) and 11.0 to 13.0 ms (penile stimulation). The genitoanal reflex had latencies of 8.1 to 10.5 ms (distal trunk stimulation) and 11.2 to 13.2 ms (penile stimulation). Response amplitudes diminished at stimulus rates of 5 to 10 Hz; responses were abolished at rates of 12 to 15 Hz, suggesting that the reflexes are polysynaptic. There was no significant difference between latency values for the bulbospongiosus and genitoanal reflexes.

Mean ± sd nerve conduction velocity in the dorsal nerve of the penis was calculated to be 3.8 ± 0.34 m/s, which was considerably slower than that found in human beings. This may represent technical difficulties in performing the test in cats, but could also indicate a difference between cats and human beings in the predominant population of cutaneous sensory fiber types of the penis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Evaluation of pudendal reflexes and effects of pudendal branch conditioning on those reflexes was carried out in 2 studies. In the first study of pudendal reflexes, 20 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the anal branch, urethral branch, and distal trunk (consisting primarily of the dorsal nerve of the penis/clitoris) of the pudendal nerve. Reflexes were tested in all possible ipsilateral and contralateral test-response combinations. Latency values and effects of increasing stimulus rate on response amplitude were recorded. Reflexes were detected in all combinations, with response latencies between 6.3 and 13.0 ms. Response amplitudes were diminished at stimulus rates of 3 to 5 Hz, and responses were apparently abolished at 4 to 16 Hz, suggesting that pudendal reflexes are polysynaptic.

In the second study of conditioning effects, 9 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent preparation similar to that for study 1. A train of conditioning stimuli was applied to branches of the pudendal nerve prior to attempting to induce reflex responses, as performed in study 1. Conditioning completely abolished reflex responses for a period of 70 to 130 ms. Reflex responses were diminished in amplitude, compared with those observed during preconditioning trials, for 180 to 300 ms after conditioning.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To classify the etiology of epilepsy and evaluate use of abnormal neurologic examination findings to predict secondary epilepsy in dogs ≥ 5 years of age.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—99 dogs with epilepsy.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify client-owned dogs evaluated for seizures at ≥ 5 years of age with a diagnosis of primary or secondary epilepsy. Dogs were stratified by age; prevalence of primary and secondary epilepsy and the proportion of dogs with secondary epilepsy that had a diagnosis of neoplasia (on the basis of MRI findings) versus other disease were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of abnormal neurologic findings to detect secondary epilepsy were determined.

Results—7 of 30 (23%) dogs 5 to 7 years of age, 13 of 29 (45%) dogs 8 to 10 years of age, 13 of 33 (39%) dogs 11 to 13 years of age, and 2 of 7 dogs ≥ 14 years of age had primary epilepsy. Prevalence of primary vs secondary epilepsy did not differ among age groups. The proportion of dogs with neoplasia at 5 to 7 years of age was lower than that of dogs in other age groups. Abnormal neurologic examination results had 74% sensitivity and 62% specificity to predict secondary epilepsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A substantial proportion of dogs ≥ 5 years of age had primary epilepsy. Results indicated that lack of abnormalities on neurologic examination does not exclude the possibility of intracranial lesions, and MRI with CSF analysis (when applicable) should be recommended for all dogs with onset of seizures at ≥ 5 years of age.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 2 groups of clinically normal dogs were compared after iopamidol (n = 9) and metrizamide (n = 8) myelography. Iopamidol (200 mg of I/ml) and metrizamide (170 mg of I/ml) were administered by cerebellomedullary injection at dosage of 0.45 ml/kg of body weight. In dogs of both groups, postmyelographic csf changes included high specific gravity, Pandy score, protein concentration, and wbc count. The high specific gravity and Pandy score were false-positive effects attributed to nonionic contrast media. Although postmyelographic protein concentration and total wbc count were greater in csf samples from dogs given metrizamide than in those given iopamidol, differences were not statistically significant. The differential wbc counts were consistent with mild, acute leptomeningitis; these findings were supported by results of histologic examination. Iopamidol and metrizamide should be considered low-grade leptomeningeal irritants in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association