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  • Author or Editor: James P. Reynolds x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether 4 mg of estradiol cypionate (ECP) administered prophylactically to highrisk postparturient dairy cows decreases incidence of postpartum metritis.

Design—Randomized, placebo-controlled, triplemasked clinical trial.

Animals—250 postparturient dairy cows in a herd with postparturient hypocalcemia, retained fetal membranes, dystocia, stillbirth, or twins.

Procedure—Cows were given 4 mg of ECP (treatment) or 2 mL of vegetable oil (control) by IM injection within 24 to 36 hours of calving. Monitoring rectal temperatures and evaluation for metritis was performed once daily for 10 days. Cows with fever ≥ 39.7°C (103.5°F) were treated with 1.5 g of ceftiofur hydrochloride.

Results—When assessed by ordinal logistic regression, there were no differences between groups in incidence of mild or severe metritis. Cows that calved during the second or third quarter of the year were at increased risk of metritis, compared with those that calved during the fourth quarter. Following stratification by lactation (first and ≥ 2), it was observed that multiparous cows that did not receive antimicrobials during the first 3 days of the postparturient period were 5 times as likely to have metritis, compared with cows treated with antimicrobials on the basis of fever or other concurrent disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prophylactic administration of ECP to dairy cows at high risk for metritis did not reduce risk for metritis. Treating multiparous cows with antimicrobials on the basis of fever during the early postpartum period was associated with decreased incidence of metritis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:846–851)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of flunixin meglumine as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in calves.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—115 calves with diarrhea that were 1 to 21 days old at enrollment.

Procedure—Calves that developed diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive no flunixin meglumine (controls), a single dose of flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb]), or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine administered 24 hours apart. Serum IgG concentration and PCV were measured prior to enrollment in the trial. Calves were evaluated daily to determine rectal temperature, fecal consistency, demeanor, and skin elasticity score . The primary analytic outcome was days of sickness (morbiddays).

Results—Calves with fecal blood and treated with a single dose of flunixin meglumine had fewer morbiddays and antimicrobial treatments, compared with controls. Although not significant, calves given 2 doses of flunixin meglumine in 24 hours had fewer morbid-days than untreated control calves. Regardless of severity of diarrhea, calves without fecal blood did not benefit from the use of flunixin. For calves with fecal blood, failure of passive transfer (low serum IgG concentration) was an independent risk factor for increased morbid-days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with a single dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in fewer antimicrobial treatments and morbid-days in calves with fecal blood. As observed in other studies, calves with failure of passive transfer were at high risk for poor outcomes. This emphasizes the importance of developing and implementing effective colostrum delivery programs on dairy farms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1329–1333)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To validate the effectiveness of a penetrating captive bolt device with a built-in low-pressure air channel pithing mechanism (PCBD) as a 1-step method for euthanasia of cattle.

DESIGN Clinical trial.

ANIMALS 66 feedlot steers and heifers (weight, 227 to 500 kg [500 to 1,100 lb]) that were not expected to survive or finish the feeding period with their cohorts.

PROCEDURES Cattle were transported to a university facility and euthanized with the PCBD. For each calf, clinical variables were monitored and recorded immediately before and for at least 10 minutes after application of the PCBD. Following euthanasia, the head of each calf was removed and trauma to the brain and skull was assessed and scored.

RESULTS Death was successfully achieved with the PCBD without application of an ancillary technique in all 66 cattle; however, 4 (6%) cattle required a second or third shot from the PCBD because of technical errors in its placement. All shots from the PCBD that entered the cranial vault successfully rendered cattle unconscious without a return to sensibility.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the PCBD was an effective 1-step method of euthanasia for use in mass depopulation of feedlot cattle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association