Objective—To determine whether a group of 3 genetic
differences in the nonstructural protein (NS1) or 1
genetic difference in the structural protein (VP2) of
Aleutian disease parvovirus (ADV) is responsible for an
increase in the in vivo replication and pathogenicity of
G/U-8, a chimera of ADV-G (nonpathogenic) and ADVUtah
(pathogenic), compared with G/U-10.
Procedure—Chimeric viruses were constructed,
propagated in vitro, and used to inoculate mink.
Antiviral antibody responses, presence of serum viral
nucleic acid, and serum gamma globulin concentrations
were monitored for 120 days following inoculation.
Histologic examination of the liver, kidneys,
spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes was performed
Results—A chimera containing only the 3 amino acid
substitutions in NS1 did not elicit measurable
responses indicative of replication or pathogenicity in
inoculated mink. Serum antiviral antibody responses,
frequency of detection of viral nucleic acid in serum,
gamma globulin response, and histologic changes in
mink inoculated with chimeras containing a valine
residue at codon 352 (352V) of VP2 capsid were
increased, compared with values from mink inoculated
with chimeric viruses that did not contain 352V.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A valine
residue at codon 352 in the VP2 capsid protein of ADV
affects in vivo viral replication and pathogenicity. This
amino acid may be part of an incompletely defined
pathogenic determinant of ADV. Further characterization
of the pathogenic determinant may allow future
development of focused preventive and therapeutic
interventions for Aleutian disease of mink. (Am J Vet
Objective—To determine the in vitro effects of selected growth factors on fibrochondrogenesis by synovial membrane cells from nonosteoarthritic (normal) and osteoarthritic joints of dogs.
Animals—5 dogs with secondary osteoarthritis of shoulder or stifle joints and 6 dogs with normal joints.
Procedures—Synovial membrane cells were harvested from normal and osteoarthritic joints and cultured in monolayer with or without (control) basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, and insulin-like growth factor-1. In the cultured cells, fibrochondrogenesis was measured by use of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay to determine relative expressions of collagen I, collagen II, and aggrecan genes and of 3 genes involved in embryonic chondrogenesis: Sry-type homeobox protein-9 (SOX-9), frizzled-motif associated with bone development (Frzb), and regulator of G-protein signaling-10 (RGS-10). Tissue collagen content was measured via a hydroxyproline assay, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content was measured via a 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue assay. Cellularity was determined via a double-stranded DNA assay. Immunohistochemical analysis for collagens I and II was also performed.
Results—In vitro collagen synthesis was enhanced by growth factor stimulation. Although osteoarthritic-joint synoviocytes could undergo a fibrocartilage-like phenotypic shift, their production of collagenous extracellular matrix was less than that of normal-joint synoviocytes. Gene expressions of SOX-9 and RGS-10 were highest in the osteoarthritic-joint cells; Frzb expression was highest in growth factor treated cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Autogenous synovium may be a viable cell source for meniscal tissue engineering. Gene expressions of SOX-9 and RGS-10 may be potential future targets for in vitro enhancement of chondrogenesis.
Objective—To determine whether thalidomide
inhibits the growth of primary and pulmonary
metastatic canine osteosarcoma in mice after xenotransplantation.
Animals—Athymic nude mice.
Procedure—Canine osteosarcoma cells were injected
SC in 50 mice. Mice were randomly placed into
the following groups: control group (n = 13; DMSO
[drug vehicle] alone [0.1 mL/d, IP]); low-dose group
(12; thalidomide [100 mg/kg, IP]), mid-dose group (13;
thalidomide [200 mg/kg, IP]); and high-dose group
(12; thalidomide [400 mg/kg, IP]). Starting on day 8,
treatments were administered daily and tumor measurements
were performed for 20 days. On day 28,
mice were euthanatized and primary tumors were
weighed. Lungs were examined histologically to
determine the number of mice with metastasis and
tumor emboli. Mean area of the pulmonary
micrometastatic foci was determined for mice from
Results—Primary tumor size and weight were not
significantly different among groups. The number of
mice in the mid-dose (200 mg/kg) and high-dose (400
mg/kg) groups with micrometastasis was significantly
less than the number of control group mice; however,
the number of mice with tumor emboli was not
affected by thalidomide treatment. Size of
micrometastasis lesions was not affected by thalidomide
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean area of
micrometastases was not affected by treatment;
however, growth of micrometastases had not yet
reached an angiogenesis-dependent size. Although
thalidomide did not affect growth of primary tumors in
mice after xenotransplantation of canine osteosarcoma
cells, our findings indicate that thalidomide may
interfere with the ability of embolic tumor cells to
complete the metastatic process within the lungs.
( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:659–664)
To compare the rate of postoperative dehiscence on the basis of intraoperative anastomotic leak test results (ie, positive or negative for leakage or testing not performed) between dogs that underwent hand-sewn anastomosis (HSA) or functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) of the small intestine.
131 client-owned dogs that underwent 144 small intestinal anastomoses (94 FEESA and 50 HSA).
Medical records were searched to identify dogs that had undergone a small intestinal anastomosis (HSA or FEESA) from January 2008 through October 2019. Data were collected regarding signalment, indication for surgery, location of the anastomosis, surgical technique, the presence of preoperative septic peritonitis, performance of intraoperative leak testing, development of postoperative dehiscence, and duration of follow-up.
Intraoperative leak testing was performed during 62 of 144 (43.1%) small intestinal anastomoses, which included 26 of 94 (27.7%) FEESAs and 36 of 50 (72.0%) HSAs. Thirteen of 144 (9.0%) anastomoses underwent dehiscence after surgery (median, 4 days; range, 2 to 17 days), with subsequent septic peritonitis, including 10 of 94 (10.6%) FEESAs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) HSAs. The incidence of postoperative dehiscence was not significantly different between FEESAs and HSAs; between anastomoses that underwent intraoperative leak testing and those that did not, regardless of anastomotic technique; or between anastomoses with positive and negative leak test results. Hand-sewn anastomoses were significantly more likely to undergo leak testing than FEESAs. Preoperative septic peritonitis, use of omental or serosal reinforcement, preoperative serum albumin concentration, and surgical indication were not significantly different between anastomotic techniques.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Performance of intraoperative anastomotic leak testing, regardless of the anastomotic technique, was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of postoperative anastomotic dehiscence.
To evaluate the efficacy of ethylene oxide (EtOH) sterilization of 4 different waterproof camera cases and the ability of those sterilized cases to maintain a sterile barrier for intraoperative camera use.
3 action cameras, 1 smartphone, and associated waterproof cases.
Cases were inoculated by immersion in medium containing Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and then manually cleaned and subjected to EtOH sterilization. Cameras were disinfected, loaded into sterile cases, and sterilely operated for 2 hours. Samples were collected from cases after inoculation, EtOH sterilization, camera loading, and 1 and 2 hours of operation and from all cameras after 2 hours of operation. Procedures were repeated twice, followed by an additional challenge round wherein cameras were purposefully contaminated prior to loading. All samples underwent bacterial culture.
All cases were successfully sterilized, and loading of nonsterile cameras into sterile cases caused no contamination when cameras had been disinfected beforehand. Nonpathogenic environmental contaminants were recovered from 6 of 64 culture samples and 2 of 4 room samples. During the challenge round, only the postload sample for 1 case yielded E coli, suggesting sterile glove contamination; however, postload, 1-hour, and 2-hour samples for the GoPro case yielded E coli and S pseudintermedius, suggesting major contamination.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that the evaluated cases can be safely sterilized with EtOH and used for image acquisition by aseptically prepared surgeons when cameras are disinfected prior to loading. Except for the GoPro camera, camera use did not jeopardize sterile integrity.