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  • Author or Editor: James L. Tomlinson x
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Abstract

Objective—To report values for percentage coverage of the femoral head (PC) and Norberg angle (NA) in 4 common breeds of dogs and to determine values for each that distinguish between normal and dysplastic hip status on the basis of Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip evaluation.

Animals—1,841 dogs 24 to 48 months of age that were Labrador Retrievers (455), Golden Retrievers (423), Rottweilers (545), or German Shepherd Dogs (418).

Procedure—Retrospective analysis of NA and PC measured from standard OFA ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs from 4 breeds of dog.

Results—Norberg angle ranged from 67.4 to 124.4° for Labrador Retrievers, 59.7 to 128.6° for Rottweilers, 70.2 to 119.4° for Golden Retrievers, and 55.3 to 121.3° for German Shepherd Dogs. The PC ranged from 6.5 to 79.9% for Labrador Retrievers, 5.7 to 79.5% for Rottweilers, 8.3 to 79.3% for Golden Retrievers, and 5.4 to 83.7% for German Shepherd Dogs. On the basis of logistic regression modeling for determining normal versus abnormal hip status for all 4 breeds, cutoff points for NA were < 105° and PC were < 50%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study indicate that cutoff points of NA of 105° and PC of 50% do not differentiate normal versus dysplastic hip status. Each of the 4 breeds had different values for NA and PC that distinguished normal from dysplastic hip status. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1492–1500)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on matrix synthesis and degradation by chondrocytes cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) gel medium.

Sample Population—Chondrocytes from 7 dogs.

Procedure—Articular chondrocytes were harvested and cultured in 3-D gel medium alone or with 10 or 20 ng IL-1βml that was added beginning on day 0, 3, 6, or 9. On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of 3-D culture, samples of the liquid medium were evaluated for glycosaminoglycan (GAG), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 content. The 3-D plug in each well was evaluated for histologic characteristics of viability, cell morphology, and proteoglycan staining, immunohistochemically stained for collagen type II, and spectrophotometrically analyzed for GAG content.

Results—Significant differences for all variables were detected between controls and each IL-1β group, among groups with different IL-1β concentrations, and among groups with IL-1β added at various time points. Chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β had loss of GAG, increased PGE2 and MMP-3 concentrations, and lack of collagen type-II synthesis. These IL-1β effects appeared to be time and concentration dependent.

Conclusions—Addition of IL-1β to chondrocytes in 3- D gel medium results in time- and concentrationdependent effects on matrix synthesis and degradation and provides an appropriate in vitro model for many of the pathophysiologic events associated with osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:766–770)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize chondrocytes from naturally occurring osteochondrosis (OC) lesions of the humeral head of dogs.

Sample Population—15 cartilage specimens from 13 client-owned dogs with humeral head OC and 10 specimens from the humeral head of healthy dogs (controls).

Procedure—Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in a 3-dimensional system. On days 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content and cytologic characteristics were evaluated. Expression of collagen types I, II, and X was assessed by use of immunohistochemistry.

Results—Chondrocytes from OC lesions were less viable, compared with control chondrocytes. Glycosaminoglycan content in the OC group was significantly less than in the control group on all days except day 20. Hydroxyproline content was also significantly less in the OC group on days 10, 20, and 25. Expression of collagen type II was significantly less in the OC group, compared with the control group on all days, whereas expression of collagen type I was significantly greater in the OC group on days 20 and 25. Expression of collagen type X was significantly less in the OC group on all days except day 25.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chondrocytes from naturally occurring OC lesions of the humeral head of dogs cultured in a 3-dimensional system were less viable and less capable of producing appropriate extracellular matrix molecules than chondrocytes from unaffected dogs. Alterations in the synthetic capabilities of chondrocytes from OC-affected cartilage may be a cause or an effect of the disease process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:186–193)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of transplantable substrates on canine chondrocytes grown in three-dimensional culture.

Animals

3 canine cadavers.

Procedure

Articular cartilage harvested from canine cadavers was used to obtain chondrocytes for primary culture. Subcultured chondrocytes were grown in agarose alone (AG), or in agarose on canine cancellous bone (CB), polypropylene mesh, or oxidized regenerated cellulose substrate. Cell proliferation, proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) production, and collagen production were assessed on days 3, 6, 10, 15 and 20.

Results

Chondrocytes from groups AG and CB proliferated and produced matrix over the entire 20-day study period. Group-CB chondrocytes had significantly more GAG than did chondrocytes of all other groups on days 6 (P = 0.0297) and 15 (P = 0.00272). Those of groups AG and CB contained significantly (P = 0.0235) more GAG on day 20. Chondrocytes of the polypropylene mesh group proliferated and produced matrix through day 10 in culture, but were no longer viable and had no matrix production on days 15 and 20. Regenerated cellulose appeared to be toxic to canine chondrocytes during all stages of in vitro three-dimensional culture.

Conclusions

Three-dimensional culture of canine chondrocytes in agarose appears to produce favorable results with respect to chondrocyte proliferation and matrix production. Canine CB appears to have beneficial effects with regard to early GAG synthesis. Polypropylene mesh and oxidized regenerated cellulose had detrimental effects on cellular proliferation and matrix production. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:419–424)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records of 6 Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs with articular fractures of the distal portion of the humerus were reviewed. Evaluation of the medical records did not reveal a sex predilection. All fractures were associated with minor traumatic episodes in young pigs. Of 6 fractures involving the humeral condyle, 4 involved the medial portion, 1 involved the lateral portion, and 1 was a Y-shaped fracture. Five of the pigs underwent surgical repair of the fracture, and all 5 did not have signs of lameness at follow-up evaluations (mean, 11 months). Of 4 pigs that had follow-up radiography, all had evidence of mild to moderate degenerative joint disease. Articular fractures of the distal portion of the humerus should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs with forelimb lameness, even if the trauma sustained appeared mild. Surgical repair in Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs is straightforward, and excellent clinical results can be expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration and immunohistochemical staining characteristics of type-I, -II, and -X collagen from cartilage affected by osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs.

Animals—31 dogs with OCD and 11 clinically normal purpose-bred dogs.

Procedure—Cartilage samples were evaluated microscopically, and GAG content was determined. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for type-I, -II, and -X collagen. Sections were subjectively evaluated for location and intensity of staining.

Results—Cartilage affected by OCD had a variety of pathologic changes and significantly lower GAG concentrations than did normal cartilage. Normal cartilage had no detectable type-I collagen. For dogs < 9 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD had significantly more type-I collagen but significantly less type- X collagen than did control cartilage. For dogs > 12 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD contained significantly more type-I collagen than did control cartilage. There was a significant negative correlation between immunoreactivity of type-I collagen and that of type-II and -X collagen. A significant positive correlation was found between immunoreactivity of type-II and -X collagen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cartilage affected by OCD contains less GAG, more type-I collagen, and less type-X collagen, compared with normal cartilage. A direct correlation between these changes and the etiopathogenesis of OCD was not established. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:876–881)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of carprofen and dexamethasone on chondrocytes in a culture model of osteoarthritis (OA).

Sample Population—Chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage of the humeral head of 5 adult dogs.

Procedure—Chondrocytes were harvested, cultured and subcultured in monolayer, and then cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) medium. Cells from each dog were distributed into 6 groups with differing content of liquid medium for each 3-D construct (agarose [AG], AG plus interleukin [IL]-1β, AG plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], AG plus dexamethasone [1 mg/mL], AG plus IL-1β [20 ng/mL] plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], and AG plus IL-1β (20 ng/mL) plus dexamethasone (1 mg/mL). On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of culture, samples from all groups were collected. Liquid media were assayed for glycosaminoglycan, prostaglandin (PG)E2, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3, and MMP- 13 concentrations. All 3-D constructs were evaluated for viability, cell morphology, proteoglycan staining, and collagen type-II concentration. Total glycosaminoglycan content in each 3-D construct was quantitated by spectrophotometric assay.

Results—Addition of IL-1β caused a significant loss of cell viability and matrix production. Addition of carprofen or dexamethasone caused significant decreases in PGE2 in the liquid media, and each was minimally effective in protecting chondrocytes against negative effects of IL-1β.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Human recombinant IL-1β resulted in loss of cell viability, alterations in extracellular matrix components, and production of PG and MMP. Carprofen and dexamethasone had little effect on cell and matrix variables but did decrease PGE2 concentrations and primarily affected the inflammatory pathway of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1363–1369)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research