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Abstract

Objective—To report values for percentage coverage of the femoral head (PC) and Norberg angle (NA) in 4 common breeds of dogs and to determine values for each that distinguish between normal and dysplastic hip status on the basis of Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) hip evaluation.

Animals—1,841 dogs 24 to 48 months of age that were Labrador Retrievers (455), Golden Retrievers (423), Rottweilers (545), or German Shepherd Dogs (418).

Procedure—Retrospective analysis of NA and PC measured from standard OFA ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs from 4 breeds of dog.

Results—Norberg angle ranged from 67.4 to 124.4° for Labrador Retrievers, 59.7 to 128.6° for Rottweilers, 70.2 to 119.4° for Golden Retrievers, and 55.3 to 121.3° for German Shepherd Dogs. The PC ranged from 6.5 to 79.9% for Labrador Retrievers, 5.7 to 79.5% for Rottweilers, 8.3 to 79.3% for Golden Retrievers, and 5.4 to 83.7% for German Shepherd Dogs. On the basis of logistic regression modeling for determining normal versus abnormal hip status for all 4 breeds, cutoff points for NA were < 105° and PC were < 50%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of our study indicate that cutoff points of NA of 105° and PC of 50% do not differentiate normal versus dysplastic hip status. Each of the 4 breeds had different values for NA and PC that distinguished normal from dysplastic hip status. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1492–1500)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize chondrocytes from naturally occurring osteochondrosis (OC) lesions of the humeral head of dogs.

Sample Population—15 cartilage specimens from 13 client-owned dogs with humeral head OC and 10 specimens from the humeral head of healthy dogs (controls).

Procedure—Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in a 3-dimensional system. On days 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content and cytologic characteristics were evaluated. Expression of collagen types I, II, and X was assessed by use of immunohistochemistry.

Results—Chondrocytes from OC lesions were less viable, compared with control chondrocytes. Glycosaminoglycan content in the OC group was significantly less than in the control group on all days except day 20. Hydroxyproline content was also significantly less in the OC group on days 10, 20, and 25. Expression of collagen type II was significantly less in the OC group, compared with the control group on all days, whereas expression of collagen type I was significantly greater in the OC group on days 20 and 25. Expression of collagen type X was significantly less in the OC group on all days except day 25.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chondrocytes from naturally occurring OC lesions of the humeral head of dogs cultured in a 3-dimensional system were less viable and less capable of producing appropriate extracellular matrix molecules than chondrocytes from unaffected dogs. Alterations in the synthetic capabilities of chondrocytes from OC-affected cartilage may be a cause or an effect of the disease process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:186–193)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on matrix synthesis and degradation by chondrocytes cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) gel medium.

Sample Population—Chondrocytes from 7 dogs.

Procedure—Articular chondrocytes were harvested and cultured in 3-D gel medium alone or with 10 or 20 ng IL-1βml that was added beginning on day 0, 3, 6, or 9. On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of 3-D culture, samples of the liquid medium were evaluated for glycosaminoglycan (GAG), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 content. The 3-D plug in each well was evaluated for histologic characteristics of viability, cell morphology, and proteoglycan staining, immunohistochemically stained for collagen type II, and spectrophotometrically analyzed for GAG content.

Results—Significant differences for all variables were detected between controls and each IL-1β group, among groups with different IL-1β concentrations, and among groups with IL-1β added at various time points. Chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β had loss of GAG, increased PGE2 and MMP-3 concentrations, and lack of collagen type-II synthesis. These IL-1β effects appeared to be time and concentration dependent.

Conclusions—Addition of IL-1β to chondrocytes in 3- D gel medium results in time- and concentrationdependent effects on matrix synthesis and degradation and provides an appropriate in vitro model for many of the pathophysiologic events associated with osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:766–770)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration and immunohistochemical staining characteristics of type-I, -II, and -X collagen from cartilage affected by osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs.

Animals—31 dogs with OCD and 11 clinically normal purpose-bred dogs.

Procedure—Cartilage samples were evaluated microscopically, and GAG content was determined. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for type-I, -II, and -X collagen. Sections were subjectively evaluated for location and intensity of staining.

Results—Cartilage affected by OCD had a variety of pathologic changes and significantly lower GAG concentrations than did normal cartilage. Normal cartilage had no detectable type-I collagen. For dogs < 9 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD had significantly more type-I collagen but significantly less type- X collagen than did control cartilage. For dogs > 12 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD contained significantly more type-I collagen than did control cartilage. There was a significant negative correlation between immunoreactivity of type-I collagen and that of type-II and -X collagen. A significant positive correlation was found between immunoreactivity of type-II and -X collagen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cartilage affected by OCD contains less GAG, more type-I collagen, and less type-X collagen, compared with normal cartilage. A direct correlation between these changes and the etiopathogenesis of OCD was not established. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:876–881)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of carprofen and dexamethasone on chondrocytes in a culture model of osteoarthritis (OA).

Sample Population—Chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage of the humeral head of 5 adult dogs.

Procedure—Chondrocytes were harvested, cultured and subcultured in monolayer, and then cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) medium. Cells from each dog were distributed into 6 groups with differing content of liquid medium for each 3-D construct (agarose [AG], AG plus interleukin [IL]-1β, AG plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], AG plus dexamethasone [1 mg/mL], AG plus IL-1β [20 ng/mL] plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], and AG plus IL-1β (20 ng/mL) plus dexamethasone (1 mg/mL). On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of culture, samples from all groups were collected. Liquid media were assayed for glycosaminoglycan, prostaglandin (PG)E2, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3, and MMP- 13 concentrations. All 3-D constructs were evaluated for viability, cell morphology, proteoglycan staining, and collagen type-II concentration. Total glycosaminoglycan content in each 3-D construct was quantitated by spectrophotometric assay.

Results—Addition of IL-1β caused a significant loss of cell viability and matrix production. Addition of carprofen or dexamethasone caused significant decreases in PGE2 in the liquid media, and each was minimally effective in protecting chondrocytes against negative effects of IL-1β.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Human recombinant IL-1β resulted in loss of cell viability, alterations in extracellular matrix components, and production of PG and MMP. Carprofen and dexamethasone had little effect on cell and matrix variables but did decrease PGE2 concentrations and primarily affected the inflammatory pathway of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1363–1369)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate biocompatibility and effects of implantation of 3-dimensional chondrocyte-agarose autografts in tibial defects in rabbits and to compare in vitro and in vivo chondrocyte-agarose constructs with respect to cell viability, differentiation, and matrix production.

Animals—24 adult New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedure—Three-dimensional constructs with (grafted group) or without (control group) autogenous chondrocytes were implanted into tibial defects of rabbits and cultured in vitro. During an 8-week period, defects were evaluated radiographically, grossly, histologically, biochemically, and immunohistochemically. In vitro constructs were evaluated histologically, biochemically, and immunohistochemically.

Results—Tibial defects had significantly higher radiographic densitometry values at 4 and 6 weeks after implantation in grafted group rabbits, compared with control group rabbits. Number of observed centers of endochondral ossification was significantly greater in defects of grafted group rabbits, compared with control group rabbits. On day 14, glycosaminoglycan concentration was significantly higher in tibial defects of grafted group rabbits, compared to defects of control group rabbits or in vitro constructs. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, glycosaminoglycan concentrations were significantly lower in the in vitro control constructs, compared with other groups. Collagen type I was present in bone and bony callous in defects of grafted and control group rabbits. Collagen type II was identified in cartilaginous tissues of grafted and control group rabbits. Collagen type X was associated with hypertrophic chondrocytes. Only type II collagen was found in the in vitro chondrocyte constructs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Chondrocyte-agarose grafts are biocompatible in large tibial defects and appear to provide a cell source for augmenting endochondral ossification. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:12–20)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old 7.4-kg (16.3-lb) castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of intermittent lameness and an antebrachial angular limb deformity.

Clinical Findings—The left forelimb had gross antebrachial external rotation (approx 90°) and marked procurvatum. Radiography revealed a severe partially compensated biapical antebrachial angular limb deformity. Measurements of medial proximal radial angle (MPRA) and lateral distal radial angle (LDRA) were obtained from orthogonal radiographs of the proximal and distal segments of the radius, respectively. Elbow joint-to-carpus translation was quantified. Deformities were localized and quantified by the center of rotation of angulation (CORA) method. Computed tomographic 3-dimensional image reconstructions of the antebrachium and carpus were completed to create 3 life-size stereolithographic models.

Treatment and Outcome—2 closing wedge radial osteotomies were performed at the level of the CORAs and stabilized with bone plates and screws.

Results—Frontal and sagittal plane alignments were corrected to 8° and 15°, respectively (reference limits, 0° to 8° and 8° to 35°, respectively). The MPRA was corrected from 55° to 68°, and LDRA was corrected from 32° to 76° (values considered normal are approx 85° and 87°, respectively). Elbow joint-to-carpus translation was improved by 42.5%. After 8 weeks, radiography revealed bone union. Owners considered the outcome acceptable, on the basis of limb appearance and lack of lameness at 1 year after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A segmental radiographic planning technique combined with the CORA method, computed tomography, and stereolithography may be useful in the characterization of and planning corrective surgery for forelimb deformities in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify complications associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs and assess owner perceptions of outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—193 dogs that underwent unilateral or bilateral TPLO (253 TPLOs total) between November 1997 and March 2001.

Procedure—Complications associated with the surgical procedure were recorded. A questionnaire was sent to owners of all dogs to assess their perceptions of outcome.

Results—Complications were identified in 47 of the 193 (24.4%) dogs and in association with 52 of the 253 (20.6%) TPLOs. Dogs that underwent bilateral TPLOs during a single anesthetic episode had a higher complication rate than did dogs that underwent unilateral TPLO and dogs that underwent bilateral TPLOs during separate anesthetic episodes. Body weight, surgery time, whether a meniscal release or meniscectomy was performed, and extent of cruciate ligament damage were not associated with whether complications occurred. One hundred forty-one of 151 (93%) owners who responded to the questionnaire were satisfied with the outcome of the surgery. Assessments of outcome were not significantly different between owners of dogs that had complications and owners of dogs that did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that complications developed in approximately 25% of dogs undergoing TPLO for treatment of a cranial cruciate ligament injury but that most complications responded to appropriate treatment, and development of complications did not affect owner assessments of outcome. There was a higher incidence of complications when bilateral TPLOs were performed during a single anesthetic episode. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:1726–1732)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13 in cartilaginous tumors of dogs, correlate expression of MMP with histologic grade of tumors and clinical outcome of dogs, and compare MMP immunoreactivity between chondrosarcomas and chondromas.

Sample Population—Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from samples of naturally occurring chondrosarcomas (n = 31) and chondromas (8) of dogs that were submitted to our veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory.

Procedure—Histologic sections from each sample were stained with H&E and monoclonal antibody to MMP-1, -3, and -13 by use of an avidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique. For each section, histologic grade (I, II, or III) and immunohistochemical expression (0, 1, 2, or 3) were evaluated. Clinical outcome was obtained from medical records or interviews with referring veterinarians and scored as a good outcome, moderate outcome, or poor outcome. Correlations among variables and differences between chondrosarcomas and chondromas were analyzed.

Results—Samples from chondrosarcomas had significantly higher immunoreactivity of MMP-1 and -13, compared with immunoreactivity in samples from chondromas. In chondrosarcomas, a significant positive correlation (r, 0.386) was found between MMP-1 and -13 immunoreactivities, and a significant negative correlation (r, –0.390) was detected between MMP-3 and -13 immunoreactivities.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in expression of collagenases (MMP-1 and - 13) in chondrosarcomas, compared with expression in chondromas, suggests that collagenases may play an important role in tumor progression, and possibly metastasis, in chondrosarcomas of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1285–1291)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research