Objective—To determine whether there was an
association between hypertensive retinopathy and
high systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures
Procedure—Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial
blood pressures were measured by use of a noninvasive
oscillometric technique. The range of blood pressure
measurements in healthy cats from various age
groups was determined. Associations among systolic,
diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure; hypertensive
retinopathy; hyperthyroidism; left ventricular cardiac
hypertrophy; chronic renal failure; and serum biochemical
abnormalities were determined.
Results—All blood pressure measurements
increased with age in healthy cats. The frequency of
hypertensive retinopathy also increased with age and
with blood pressure, and hypertensive retinopathy
was particularly found in cats with systolic blood pressures
> 168 mm Hg. There was an increased risk for
hypertensive retinopathy in cats that were female, >
10 years old, and neutered. The risk of chronic renal
failure also increased as blood pressure, particularly
systolic blood pressure, increased.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypertensive
retinopathy was common in cats ≥ 10 years of age and
was associated with systolic blood pressures
> 168 mm Hg when measured by the noninvasive oscillometric
technique. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:245–252)
Objectives—To assess the association between
goniodysgenesis, ocular measurements, and glaucoma
in Great Danes.
Animals—180 Great Danes.
Procedure—Eye examination and measurements
were obtained from 180 Great Danes; for 30 of these
dogs, depth of the anterior chamber, vitreal body
length, and total depth of the globe were also measured.
These data were merged with electronic pedigree
information on 43,371 kennel club registered
Great Danes. Relationships among goniodysgenesis,
ocular measurements, and glaucoma and the heritability
of goniodysgenesis were estimated.
Results—The degree of goniodysgenesis was significantly
and positively associated with the likelihood of
glaucoma. There was a significant association
between the degree of goniodysgenesis in offspring
and parents. The estimated heritability of the degree
of goniodysgenesis was 0.52. The depth of the anterior
chamber of the eye was also a good predictor of
goniodysgenesis (ie, the dog was almost certain to
have glaucoma if the depth was < 3.7 mm). If both
parents had goniodysgenesis < 70%, then with 95%
confidence, the occurrence of glaucoma in the ensuing
offspring would be < 4/1000. This strategy translates
to ensuring that the depth of the anterior chamber
of the eye is > 3.7 mm for both parents.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The strong
and significant correlation among goniodysgenesis,
other eye measurements, and glaucoma and the significant
heritability of goniodysgenesis suggests that
glaucoma may be heritable in Great Danes. If so, glaucoma
can be controlled by breeding only from sires
and dams with a minimum degree of goniodysgenesis.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1493–1499)
Objective—To establish a model for inheritance of
gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) in Irish Setters.
Animals—44 dogs of a 6-generation family of Irish
Setters with GSE and 7 healthy Irish Setters.
Procedure—Phenotype of each dog was determined
after oral administration of gluten in the weaning diet,
using morphometric evaluation of jejunal biopsies (all
generations) and measurement of small intestinal
permeability by use of a lactulose-rhamnose permeation
test (generations 1, 2, and 3). Overall probability
for each of 4 genetic models of inheritance (autosomal
recessive, autosomal dominant, sex-linked recessive,
and sex-linked dominant) accounting for segregation
of partial villus atrophy within the entire family
Results—The autosomal recessive model was most
tenable and was 56,250 times more likely to
account for segregation of partial villus atrophy than
the autosomal dominant model, assuming disease
prevalence of 0.8%. Both sex-linked models were
untenable. These conclusions were robust to the
error attached to estimation of disease prevalence.
High intestinal permeability without morphometric
jejunal abnormalities in 4 of 20 dogs in the 3
youngest generations suggested heterogeneity of
lesions associated with GSE.
Conclusions—Genetic transmission of GSE is under
the control of a single major autosomal recessive
locus. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:462–468)
Objective—To identify major risk factors associated with anesthetic-related death in dogs.
Animals—148 dogs that died or were euthanized within 48 hours after undergoing anesthesia or sedation and for which anesthesia could not be reasonably excluded as a contributory factor (cases) and 487 control dogs that did not die within 48 hours after undergoing anesthesia or sedation (controls).
Procedures—Details of patient characteristics, preoperative evaluation and preparation, procedure, anesthetic and sedative agents used, monitoring, postoperative management, and personnel involved were recorded. Mixed-effects logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with anesthetic-related death.
Results—An increase in physical status grade, urgency of the procedure, age, or intended duration of the procedure; a decrease in body weight; anesthesia for a major versus a minor procedure; and use of injectable agents for anesthetic induction and halothane for maintenance or use of inhalant anesthetics alone (compared with use of injectable agents for induction and isoflurane for maintenance) were associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results suggested that specific factors could be associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death in dogs. Knowledge of these factors should aid the preoperative assessment and perioperative management of dogs undergoing anesthesia and sedation.
Objective—To estimate the heritability of atopic dermatitis
in Golden and Labrador Retrievers.
Animals—429 dogs related to 13 dogs with atopic
Procedure—Atopic dermatitis was defined on the
basis of the type and frequency of clinical signs
recorded in the clinical records, and each dog was
classified with atopic dermatitis or probable atopic
dermatitis or as nonatopic. By use of data from atopic
and nonatopic dogs, regression analyses of parental
status on offspring status were performed to estimate
Results—There was no difference in the frequency
of atopic dermatitis between sexes or between
breeds. There was a marked association between
the atopic status of the parent and that of the offspring,
particularly for sires. By use of data from 32
litters in which the status of both parents was
known and considering only those dogs classified
with atopic dermatitis or as nonatopic, the heritability
(± SE) of atopic dermatitis was estimated to be
0.47 (± 0.17).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Atopic dermatitis
has a strong genetic component, and breeding
of dogs with clinical signs of atopic dermatitis
should be discouraged. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;