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Summary

Vascular patterns to thoracic limbs, thorax, and neck muscles were studied in 10 dogs (20 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify vascular pedicles. Size and location of pedicles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cutaneous trunci, latissimus dorsi, sternothyroideus, sternohyoideus, deep pectoral, anconeus, ulnaris lateralis, and ulnar head of flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were identified as suitable for transfer. The cranial trapezius, caudal omotransversarius, cleidobrachialis, and caudal sternocephalicus muscles also had potential for use. Other muscles, because of inaccessibility or unfavorable vascular pattern, were not suitable candidates for transfer.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine messenger RNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin- (IL)-1β from cultured equine smooth muscle cells (SMC).

Sample Population—Segments of palmar digital artery harvested from 6 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Explants were collected from the tunica media of arteries for primary culture of SMC. Equine mononuclear cells were used as control cells. Subcultured vascular SMC and control cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (20 µg/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively). Northern blot analysis with equine-specific probes for COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β was performed, using isolated total cellular RNA.

Results—Although no message was detected for IL-1β or TNF-α in control or endotoxin-exposed equine vascular SMC from all horses, COX-2 underwent a distinct substantial up-regulation after endotoxin exposure. Endotoxin-exposed equine mononuclear cells had up-regulation of IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased expression of COX-2 mRNA by equine vascular SMC may be an important early pathophysiologic event in the onset of endotoxemia in horses. Potentiated local vascular production of various prostanoids after increased expression of mRNA for COX-2 may result in vasoactive events observed with laminitis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1957–1963)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and heat-inactivated FBS (HI-FBS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and zymosan-induced procoagulant activity of equine and canine mononuclear cells.

Sample Population—Mononuclear cells from 18 horses and 3 dogs.

Procedures—Cells were incubated with various concentrations of FBS, HI-FBS, LPS, zymosan, polymyxin B, and anti–LPS-binding protein monoclonal antibody or combinations of these constituents. A 1stage recalcification assay was used to determine procoagulant activity.

Results—Addition of FBS to media significantly increased procoagulant activity; equine and canine cells were stimulated by 1% and 10% FBS, respectively. Coincubation of cells with FBS and polymyxin B did not reduce this effect, suggesting that the response was not attributable to LPS contamination. Addition of HI-FBS to media did not stimulate procoagulant activity of equine or canine cells, and the sensitivity of the equine cells to LPS was significantly increased by HI-FBS. This increased LPS sensitivity was reduced 40% with monoclonal antibody directed against human recombinant LPSbinding protein. Increasing concentrations of HIFBS significantly increased LPS- and zymosaninduced procoagulant activity of canine cells.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Procoagulant activity production in equine and canine mononuclear cells was significantly increased by addition of FBS, whereas heat inactivation of FBS eliminated this effect. Heat inactivation did not eliminate the function of serum proteins involved in enhancement of LPSand zymosan-induced procoagulant activity. Results suggest that HI-FBS can be used as a source of serum proteins that increase the sensitivity of mononuclear cells to bacterial and yeast cell wall components.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The vascular patterns to pelvic limb muscles were studied in 6 dogs (12 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify the vascular pedicles. The vascular peicles to several muscles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cranial part of the sartorius, gracillis, semitendinosus, and rectus femoris muscles were identified as suitable candidates for transfer. The caudal part of the sartorius, cranial tibial, and long digital extensor muscles have segmentalized vascular patterns that would limit its arc of rotation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A study was performed to determine whether equine peritoneal macrophages produce interleukin 6 (il-6) in vitro in response to endotoxin. Peritoneal fluid was collected from 14 clinically normal adult horses and was used as the source of peritoneal macrophages. Macrophages from each horse were isolated and cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of various concentrations (0.5, 5, or 500 ng/ml) of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 055:B5). Culture medium supernatants were collected after 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours’ incubation and were frozen at −70 C until assayed for il-6 activity. Supernatant il-6 activity was determined by use of a modified colorimetric assay and the murine hybridoma cell line B 13.29 clone B.9, which is dependent on il-6 for survival.

Results indicated that equine peritoneal macrophages produce il-6 in vitro and that supernatant medium il-6 activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by exposure to endotoxin. Significant (P < 0.05) time and treatment effects on macrophage il-6 production were apparent. The il-6 activity peaked at 6 or 12 hours’ incubation, then remained high through 24 hours’ incubation, regardless of endotoxin exposure. Medium il-6 activity during 3 and 6 hours’ incubation was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in macrophages exposed to 5 or 500 ng of endotoxin/ml than in those exposed to 0.5 ng of endotoxin/ml; however peak il-6 activity was similar among all endotoxin concentrations. Endotoxin concentration did not have an effect on medium il-6 activity from macrophages exposed to endotoxin for 12 or 24 hours.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A study was conducted to determine whether serum interleukin-6 (il-6) activity increased in horses during experimentally induced endotoxemia and whether serum il-6 activity correlated to changes in clinical or laboratory data. Six clinically normal horses were given endotoxin iv (30 ng/kg of body weight) in 0.9% NaCl solution over 1 hour. Five of these and 1 additional horse served as controls and were given only 0.9% NaCl solution. Venous blood, for determination of serum il-6 activity and wbc count, was collected before and at various times through 8 hours after the start of endotoxin or NaCl infusion. Rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates were recorded throughout the study period. Serum il-6 activity was determined by bioassay of proliferation of the B13.29 clone B.9 hybridoma cell line. From 1.5 through 5 hours after start of the infusion, serum il-6 activity was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in horses given endotoxin. Mean peak serum il-6 activity was observed between 3 and 4 hours. In response to endotoxin infusion, horses became lethargic, tachycardic, and febrile. Leukopenia developed by 1 hour, followed by leukocytosis at 8 hours. Significant (P < 0.05) positive association and linear correlation were apparent between mean serum il-6 activity and mean rectal temperature in the group of horses that were given endotoxin. Changes from baseline were not evident in any of the clinical or laboratory values in horses given only NaCl solution.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To study expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in the digital laminae of horses in the prodromal stage of experimentally induced laminitis.

Animals—8 healthy adult horses with no signs of laminitis.

Procedure—Black walnut extract was administered via nasogastric tube to 4 horses, and water was administered to the remaining 4 (controls). Complete blood counts and physical examinations were performed every 30 minutes after administration of black walnut extract or water. General anesthesia was induced when total WBC count decreased by 30% in horses given the black walnut extract and 3 hours after water administration in control horses. The left forefoot was perfusion fixed with neutral-buffered 10% formalin, and paraffin-embedded sections of the digit were used for in situ hybridization with an equine-specific IL-1β probe.

Results—IL-1β mRNA expression was observed in perivascular cells of the small laminar venules and capillaries in all 4 horses given black walnut extract and in interstitial cells remote from the microvasculature in 1 of the 4. Other cellular components of the laminar tissue and cellular components of the digital arterioles and veins did not exhibit IL-1β mRNA expression. Expression of IL-1β mRNA was not detected in laminae from control horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that IL-1β mRNA is expressed by perivascular cells in the laminar tissues of horses in the prodromal stage of experimentally induced laminitis. This provides evidence of an inflammatory process during the prodromal stage of laminitis, indicating that local digital proinflammatory cytokine expression may be an initiating factor in laminitis.(Am J Vet Res 2001;62: 714–720)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate proinflammatory effects of the second-generation synthetic lipid A analogue E5564 on equine whole blood and isolated monocytes and to determine the ability of E5564 to prevent LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced procoagulant activity (PCA); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production; and mRNA expression of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 by equine monocytes.

Sample Population—Venous blood samples obtained from 19 healthy horses.

Procedures—Whole blood and monocytes were incubated with Escherichia coli O111:B4 LPS, E5564, or E5564 plus E coli O111:B4 LPS. Whole blood and cell supernatants were assayed for TNF-α, and cell lysates were assayed to determine PCA. Expression of mRNA for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 by monocytes was determined by use of real-time quantitative PCR assay.

Results—Minimal proinflammatory effects were detected in whole blood and monocytes. In addition, E5564 inhibited LPS-induced PCA and TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, E5564 significantly inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 and decreased LPS-induced expression of IL-6.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The second-generation synthetic lipid A analogue E5564 lacked agonist activity in equine whole blood and monocytes and was a potent antagonist of enteric LPS. Therefore, E5564 appeared to be the first lipid A analogue that has potential as an effective therapeutic agent in horses with endotoxemia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anti-inflammatory effects of several novel adenosine receptor agonists and to determine their specificity for various adenosine receptor subtypes on neutrophils, cells heterologously expressing equine adenosine receptors, or equine brain membranes.

Sample Population—Neutrophils isolated from 8 healthy horses.

Procedures—Radioligand binding experiments were performed to compare binding affinities of adenosine receptor agonists to equine adenosine A1, A2A, and A3 receptor subtypes. Effects of these agonists on endotoxin-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by equine neutrophils and roles of specific adenosine receptor subtypes and cAMP production in mediating these effects were determined.

Results—Radioligand binding experiments yielded a ranked order of affinity for the brain equine A2A receptor on the basis of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the agonists as follows: ATL307 (IC50 = 1.9nM) and ATL313 > ATL309 and ATL310 > ATL202 > 2-([p-2- carboxyethyl] phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine > 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. Furthermore, ATL313 had approximately 100-fold greater selectivity for A2A over A1 and A3 receptors. In functional assays with equine neutrophils, the compounds inhibited endotoxin-induced ROS production and stimulated production of cAMP with the same ranked order of potency. Results of experiments performed with selective adenosine receptor antagonists indicated that functional effects of ATL313 were via stimulation of A2A receptors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that activation of A2A receptors exerted anti-inflammatory effects on equine neutrophils and that stable, highly selective adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be developed for use in management of horses and other domestic animals with septic and nonseptic inflammatory diseases.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the anti-inflammatory effects of an adenosine analogue on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine neutrophils.

Sample Population—Neutrophils obtained from 10 healthy horses.

Procedures—An adenosine analogue (5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]) was tested for its ability to inhibit production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated equine neutrophils. Selective adenosine receptor antagonists were used to identify the receptor subtype responsible for effects. To assess the mechanism of action of NECA, cAMP concentrations were measured, and effects of dibutyryl cAMP (a stable analogue of cAMP) and rolipram (a type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor) were investigated.

Results—NECA elicited concentration-dependent inhibition of ROS production that was inhibited by ZM241385, a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist; this effect of NECA was not affected by the adenosine A2B receptor antagonist MRS1706. Also, ZM241385 blocked NECA-induced increases in cAMP concentrations, whereas MRS1706 did not alter this effect of NECA. Rolipram potentiated NECA-induced inhibition of ROS production, and dibutyryl cAMP also inhibited ROS production.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activation of adenosine A2A receptors inhibited ROS production by LPS-stimulated equine neutrophils in a cAMP-dependent manner. These results suggest that stable adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be developed as suitable anti-inflammatory drugs in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research