You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for
- Author or Editor: James L. Bruce x
- Refine by Access: All Content x
Objectives—To assess automated ribotyping for characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and to identify their type prevalence and geographic distribution.
Sample Population—39 human and 56 ruminant P aeruginosa isolates.
Procedures—Isolates were identified by use of bacteriologic techniques and automated PvuII-based ribotyping. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was tested in vitro. Data were analyzed for index of discrimination; prevalence ratio; geographic distribution of ribotypes found only in humans, only in cows, or only in goats (single-host ribotypes); and geographic distribution of ribotypes found in humans and ruminants (multihost ribotypes).
Results—All isolates were typeable (45 ribotypes, 35 single-host ribotypes). Ribotyping index of discrimination was 0.976. More isolates (45.3%) than expected yielded multihost ribotypes (22% of all ribotypes). Although 8.6% of single-host ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates, 60% of multihost ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates. Ninety percent of multihost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas, whereas 3.0% of singlehost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas. All ruminant isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and polymyxin B. In contrast, antibiogram profiles differed for human isolates from different geographic areas. Susceptibility to antimicrobials differentiated 6 isolates not distinguished by ribotyping.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Automated ribotyping with PvuII discriminated more isolates than in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. In combination, both tests provided more information than either test alone. Given the greater prevalence and geographic distribution of multihost ribotypes, immunocompromised humans and lactating ruminants may have a greater risk for disease if exposed to multihost P aeruginosa ribotypes, compared with single-host ribotypes. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:864–870)
Objective—To evaluate sensitivities at the herd level of test strategies used in the Voluntary Johne's Disease Herd Status Program (VJDHSP) and alternative test strategies for detecting dairy cattle herds infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
Design—Nonrandom cross-sectional study.
Sample Population—64 dairy herds from Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Colorado, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Fifty-six herds had at least 1 cow shedding M paratuberculosis in feces; the other 8 herds were free from paratuberculosis.
Procedure—For all adult cows in each herd, serum samples were tested for antibodies to M paratuberculosis with an ELISA, and fecal samples were submitted for bacterial culture for M paratuberculosis. Sensitivities at the herd level (probability of detecting infected herd) of various testing strategies were then evaluated.
Results—Sensitivity at the herd level of the testing strategy used in level 1 of the VJDHSP (use of the ELISA to test samples from 30 cows followed by confirmatory bacterial culture of feces from cows with positive ELISA result) ranged from 33 to 84% for infected herds, depending on percentage of cows in the herd with positive bacterial culture results. If follow- up bacterial culture was not used to confirm positive ELISA results, sensitivity ranged from 70 to 93%, but probability of identifying uninfected herds as infected was 89%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the testing strategy used in the VJDHSP will fail to identify as infected most dairy herds with a low prevalence of paratuberculosis. A higher percentage of infected herds was detected if follow-up bacterial culture was not used, but this test strategy was associated with a high probability of misclassifying uninfected herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220: 1053–1057)