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Summary

We evaluated and characterized several anesthetic induction protocols used to facilitate intubation and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane in 7 adult ostriches and 1 juvenile ostrich. Induction protocols included iv administration of zolazepam/tiletamine, iv administration of diazepam/ketamine with and without xylazine, iv administration of xylazine/ketamine, im administration of carfentanil or xylazine/carfentanil, and mask induction with isoflurane. General anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 100% oxygen for various procedures, including proventriculotomy (6 birds), tibial (1 bird) or mandibular (1 bird) fracture repair, and drainage of an iatrogenic hematoma (1 bird). Heart rate and respiratory rate varied greatly among birds. The arterial blood pressure values recorded from 6 of the birds during maintenance of general anesthesia were higher than values recorded for most mammalian species, but were comparable to values reported for awake chickens and turkeys.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Over a 3-year period, proventriculotomy was performed on 18 ostriches to relieve impaction of the proventriculus. Diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal palpation, abdominal radiography, and in some cases, exploratory proventriculotomy. In addition to proventriculotomy, an esophagotomy was performed in 5 birds that were debilitated to allow forcefeeding during the postoperative period. The median age of ostriches treated surgically for proventricular impaction was 7.5 months (range, 3 months to 18 years).

Impactions consisted of sand, rocks, or gravel in combination with grass, leaves, wood, or other fibrous materials. In 7 birds, small pieces of wire or nails were also removed from the proventriculus. In 1 bird, a large metal punch was removed via the proventriculotomy.

Six ostriches died at the hospital in the immediate postoperative period. Four of these died within 24 hours of surgery. All 4 birds were emaciated and in a severely weakened condition at admission, and they continued to deteriorate after surgery. One bird died 8 days after surgery as a result of complications associated with a septic joint unrelated to the proventriculotomy procedure. Another bird was euthanatized 6 days after surgery because its condition failed to improve and the owners did not want to pursue further treatment because of expense. Follow-up information was obtained for 12 surviving ostriches 1 week to 29 months (median, 5.5 months) after they were discharged from the hospital. Four of the 12 birds died within 30 days of discharge from the hospital. The remaining 8 birds (44%) were alive at follow-up evaluation (median, 10.5 months after surgery; range, 5 to 29 months). In the birds that survived long-term, complications associated with the proventriculotomy or esophagotomy were not observed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind limbs.

Animals—12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers.

Procedures—CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral condyles, 1 plane aligned with the femoral trochlea, and a third orthogonal plane. Randomized and anonymized reconstructions were assessed for TT-TG offset distance with a single-image technique by 1 observer, and inter-reconstruction repeatability and intra- and inter-reconstruction measurement repeatability were assessed via the repeatability coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results—Multiplanar reconstructions of hind limb images were repeatedly made to within a few degrees of each other. Intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability for TT-TG offset distance measurement was good. Repeatability was most affected by accurate identification of the tibial tuberosity and femoral trochlea landmarks.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained from vulpine hind limb CT images indicated that reconstructions can be made with a high degree of repeatability when based on strictly defined and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the response of cortical bone to a multicomponent and nanostructural polymeric matrix as a drug delivery system for enhancing bone healing.

Animals—20 healthy adult crossbred goats.

Procedures—A 3.5-mm-diameter unicortical defect was created in each tibia (day 0), and goats (4 goats/group) were treated as follows: not treated (control group), grafted with the matrix, grafted with antimicrobial (tigecycline and tobramycin)–impregnated matrix, grafted with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein type 2 (rhBMP-2)–impregnated matrix, or grafted with antimicrobial- and rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix. Elution kinetics of antimicrobials was monitored through plasma concentrations. Bone response was assessed with radiographic scoring (days 1 and 30) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (days 1, 14, and 30). Goats were euthanized on day 30, and histomorphologic analysis was performed. Categorical variables were analyzed with a generalized linear model, and continuous variables were analyzed with an ANOVA.

Results—Plasma antimicrobial concentrations indicated continued release throughout the study. Radiography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry did not reveal significant differences among treatments on day 30. Periosteal reactions were significantly greater surrounding bone defects grafted with rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix than those not treated or grafted with matrix or with antimicrobial-impregnated matrix; periosteal reactions were similar in bone defects grafted with rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix and antimicrobial- and rhBMP-2–impregnated matrix.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The matrix served as an antimicrobial delivery system and stimulated bone proliferation when rhBMP-2 was present. Antimicrobial and rhBMP-2 can be used concurrently, but the presence of antimicrobials may affect the performance of rhBMP-2.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.

Sample—Pelvic limbs from cadavers of 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

Procedures—Patellar position in each limb at 7 stifle joint angles (30° to 148°) was assessed by use of the Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (mIS), de Carvalho (dC), patellotrochlear (PT), and Blackburne-Peel (BP) indices.

Results—Values for all indices varied significantly on the basis of joint angle, but for IS and mIS indices, this was minor and nonsignificant between 52° and 130° and between 52° and 148°, respectively. The dC index increased linearly, and PT and BP indices varied polynomially with increases in stifle joint angle. Stifle joint angles measured from radiographs agreed well with the goniometrically set stifle joint angles up to approximately 100° and diverged thereafter. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was substantial for all indices, and IS index was the most precise.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IS and mIS index values were effectively independent of stifle joint angle, in contrast to dC, PT, and BP indices. The BP index varied nonsignificantly across a range of joint angles. To maximize angular accuracy, radiographs should not be obtained at joint angles > 100°. Although dC, PT, and BP indices appeared to be suitable for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of patellar position, BP index appeared to have the most promise for determination of patellar position in clinical applications.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 12-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for clinical signs associated with colorectal obstruction.

Clinical Findings—The dog had a 2-week history of tenesmus and hematochezia. On rectal examination, an annular colorectal mass was palpable extending orad into the pelvic canal. The original diagnosis of the colorectal mass was a mucosal adenoma. The dog was maintained on a low-residue diet and fecal softeners for a period of 13 months after initial diagnosis. At that time, medical management was no longer effective.

Treatment and Outcome—Placement of a colonic stent was chosen to palliate the clinical signs associated with colorectal obstruction. By use of fluoroscopic and colonoscopic guidance, a nitinol stent was placed intraluminally to open the obstructed region. Placement of the stent resulted in improvement of clinical signs, although tenesmus and obstipation occurred periodically after stent placement. At 212 days after stent placement, the patient had extensive improvement in clinical signs with minimal complications; however, clinical signs became severe at 238 days after stent placement, and the dog was euthanized. Histologic evaluation of the rectal tumor from samples obtained during necropsy revealed that the tumor had undergone malignant transformation to a carcinoma in situ.

Clinical Relevance—A stent was successfully placed in the colon and rectum to relieve obstruction associated with a tumor originally diagnosed as a benign neoplasm. Placement of colorectal stents may be an option for the palliation of colorectal obstruction secondary to neoplastic disease; however, clinical signs may persist, and continuation of medical management may be necessary.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Intraocular production of Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibody in cats has been estimated by comparing the ratio of T gondii-specific antibody in aqueous humor and serum with the ratio of total immunoglobulins in serum and aqueous humor (Goldmann-Witmer coefficient; aqueous antibody coefficient; C value). It has been proposed that in human beings, comparison of the ratio of T gondii-specific antibody in aqueous humor and serum with the ratio of antibodies against a nonocular pathogen in serum and aqueous humor is more accurate than methods using total immunoglobulin quantification. We developed an elisa for detection of calicivirus-specific antibodies in the serum and aqueous humor of cats. By evaluating calicivirus-specific antibody concentrations in the aqueous humor of healthy and diseased cats, calicivirus was assessed as a nonintraocular pathogen. The ratio of T gondii-specific antibodies in the aqueous humor and serum and the ratio of calicivirus-specific antibodies in serum and aqueous humor were evaluated as a means of estimating intraocular T gondii-specific antibody production.

A field strain of feline calicivirus was isolated, cultured, and purified. A calicivirus-specific IgG elisa was developed for detection of feline calicivirus-specific IgG in serum and aqueous humor. Calicivirus-specific IgG was measured in the serum and aqueous humor from 3 groups of control cats. Results suggested that calicivirus is a nonintraocular pathogen in cats and that calicivirus IgG detected in aqueous humor is attributable to leakage across a damaged blood-ocular barrier.

Intraocular production of T gondii-specific antibodies was estimated, using 2 formulas. The C value was calculated by multiplying the ratio of T gondii-specific IgM or IgG in aqueous humor and serum by the ratio of total immunoglobulins (using the corresponding IgM or IgG class) in serum and aqueous humor. The C tc value (Toxoplasma-calicivirus Goldmann-Witmer coefficient) was calculated by multiplying the ratio of T gondii-specific IgM or IgG in aqueous humor and serum by the ratio of calicivirus-specific IgG in serum and aqueous humor.

Serum and aqueous humor samples were obtained from 41 client-owned cats with uveitis, and T gondii-specific C values and Ctc values were calculated. Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM or IgG C values of 10 or greater or T gondii-specific IgM or IgG Ctc values of 1 or greater were considered to be suggestive of intraocular T gondii-specific antibody production. Of the 41 cats, 20 (48.7%) had evidence of intraocular production of T gondii-specific antibody on the basis of either an IgM or IgG C value of 10 or greater. A Ctc value could not be calculated in 3 cats because calicivirus-specific IgG was not present in aqueous humor. Of the 38 cats for which Ctc values could be calculated, 25 (65.8 %) had evidence of intraocular production of T gondii-specific antibody on the basis of either an IgM or IgG Ctc value of 1 or greater. The C values and Ctc values were in agreement for 75.9 % of IgM containing samples and 75% of IgG containing samples. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of a positive test result, and predictive value of a negative test result for an IgM or IgG C value, when compared with the corresponding IgM or IgG Ctc value were determined. The results indicate that use of the C value for estimation of intraocular T gondii-specific antibody production will result in 28.6 (IgM) to 50 % (IgG) false-negative results and 12.5% (IgM and IgG) false-positive results, when compared with the Ctc value.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research