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  • Author or Editor: James H. Meinkoth x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical and hematologic responses in dogs following experimental inoculation with Babesia gibsoni-like isolates from infected dogs in Oklahoma.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—2 dogs were inoculated with organisms from a naturally infected dog, and 3 were inoculated with organisms from a second naturally infected dog (1 of these 3 dogs was splenectomized 1 week prior to inoculation). One dog was not inoculated. Complete blood counts were performed weekly.

Results—In the 5 dogs inoculated with organisms, parasites were initially detected 1 to 5 weeks after inoculation, and severity of parasitemia peaked with 1.9 to 6.0% of RBC infected by 4 to 6 weeks after inoculation. Parasitemia was easily detectable (> 0.1% of RBC infected) for 3 to 4 weeks. Clinical abnormalities included lethargy, fever, and pale mucous membranes but were mild to nearly inapparent in 2 dogs. All dogs developed regenerative anemia and marked thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia developed before and lasted longer than the parasitemia. Profound but transient neutropenia was detected in some dogs. The splenectomized dog developed more severe parasitemia and anemia and more pronounced clinical abnormalities. Three dogs with intact spleens recovered without treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that 2 or more genotypically distinct, but morphologically identical, small Babesia parasites can infect dogs in the United States. Compared with infection with small Babesia parasites from California, infection with these isolates resulted in less severe parasitemia and clinical abnormalities. Parasitemia was transient, indicating that identification of organisms in blood smears may be difficult in some dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:185–189)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To quantitatively determine echogenicity of the liver and renal cortex in clinically normal cats.

Animals—17 clinically normal adult cats.

Procedure—3 ultrasonographic images of the liver and the right kidney were digitized from video output from each cat. Without changing the ultrasound machine settings, an image of a tissue-equivalent phantom was digitized. Biopsy specimens of the right renal cortex and liver were obtained for histologic examination. Mean pixel intensities within the region of interest (ROI) on hepatic, renal cortical, and tissue-equivalent phantom ultrasonographic images were determined by histogram analysis. From ultrasonographic images, mean pixel intensities for hepatic and renal cortical ROI were standardized by dividing each mean value by the mean pixel intensity from the tissue-equivalent phantom.

Results—The mean (± SD) standardized hepatic echogenicity value was 1.06 ± 0.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.10). The mean standardized right renal cortical echogenicity value was 1.04 ± 0.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.08). The mean combined standardized hepatic and renal cortical echogenicity value was 1.02 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Quantitative determination of hepatic and renal cortical echogenicity in cats is feasible, using histogram analysis, and may be useful for early detection of diffuse parenchymal disease and for serially evaluating disease progression. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1016–1020)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs that were confiscated from dogfighting operations.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—157 pit bull–type dogs that were confiscated as part of dogfighting prosecution cases in Iowa, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Washington and 218 randomly selected animal shelter dogs with no known history of dogfighting.

Procedures—Blood samples collected from confiscated dogs were tested for infection with B gibsoni by use of a nested PCR assay. Samples that yielded positive results underwent DNA sequencing to confirm infection with B gibsoni. Control blood samples collected from 218 randomly selected dogs in animal shelters (ie, dogs that had no known involvement in dogfighting events) were also analyzed.

Results—Results of nested PCR assays indicated that 53 of 157 (33.8%) confiscated dogs were infected with B gibsoni; 1 (0.6%) dog was infected with the canine small Babesia ‘Spanish isolate’ (also known as Theileria annae). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of infection with this small Babesia ‘Spanish isolate’ in a North American dog. Dogs with scars (indicative of fighting) on the face, head, and forelimbs were 5.5 times as likely to be infected with B gibsoni as were dogs without scars. Of the control dogs, 1 (0.5%) pit bull–type dog was infected with B gibsoni.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that B gibsoni is a common parasite of dogs confiscated from dogfighting operations and suggested that dogs with a history of fighting should be evaluated for infection with B gibsoni.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of exercise performed while breathing cold air on expression of cytokines and influx of neutrophils in airways of horses.

Animals—9 adult horses.

Procedures—In a crossover study, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained 24 and 48 hours after each of 2 submaximal exercise sessions performed by horses while breathing warm (25°C) or cold (−5°C) air. Total and differential nucleated cell counts were determined for each BALF sample. Relative mRNA expression of cytokines in BALF cells was quantified by use of a reverse transcription–PCR assay.

Results—Horses had a modest but significant influx of neutrophils into the airways 24 hours after a single exercise session while breathing cold air. No other cell types were increased at 24 or 48 hours after exercising while breathing cold air. Continued increases in expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and-10 as well as proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, -6, and -8 were detected 24 hours after exercising while breathing cold air. Forty-eight hours after exercising while breathing cold air, expression of IL-10 was still higher than that for IL-10 after horses exercised while breathing warm air. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased at 48 hours after exercising while breathing cold air.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of intrapulmonary airways to cold air alters immunologic responses of horses for at least 48 hours. The increased expression of cytokines that suppress cell-mediated immunity may predispose athletes to viral infections of the respiratory tract following exercise in cold weather.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.

Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association