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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Questionnaires regarding the use of prostaglandin F and its analogues (hereafter referred to as pg) were sent to 332 Alabama beef cattle owners and to 279 Alabama dairy cattle owners after attempting to contact them by telephone to request their participation in the survey. Questionnaires concerning the use of pg in their clients’ herds were likewise sent to 147 food animal and mixed animal practitioners in Alabama after attempting telephone contact. Response among beef cattle owners, dairy cattle owners, and veterinarians to whom questionnaires were mailed was 64.5, 61.6, and 75.5%, respectively.

Only 7.4% (13 of 175) of respondent beef cattle owners reported use of pg in their herds, and this use was predominantly for artificial insemination and embryo transfer. In contrast, 66.5% (109 of 164) of respondent dairy cattle owners reported use of pg, generally with satisfactory results, for some of the following conditions: unobserved estrus (n = 77), uterine infections (n = 74), retained placenta (n = 65), cystic ovaries (n = 56), estrus synchronization (n = 45), and induction of parturition (n = 13).

Although 94.9% of respondent veterinarians treated cattle with pg, those attending beef herds thought that more important strategies were available for improvement of beef cattle productivity than increased use of pg. Among these strategies were shorter calving seasons, improved nutrition, better record keeping, more frequent herd health visits, improved animal identification, and increased use of bull breeding soundness examinations. Likewise, dairy practitioners thought that improved estrus detection, more frequent herd health visits, improved nutrition, better artificial insemination technique, and improved record keeping were more important for improved production than was increased use of pg.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Use of prostaglandin F products (pg) in dairy cows was studied by use of computerized reproductive herd health data compiled from 29 dairy herds in Minnesota and Wisconsin during 1983 through 1988. Treatment with pg was recorded in 1,856 of 7,139 (26.0%) complete lactations. More than 1 treatment with pg was administered in 534 of the 1,856 (28.8%) lactations in which pg were used. The proportion of lactations in which treatment was used varied among herds and years, and was associated with the proportion of cows in which natural breeding was attempted and, to a lesser extent, with estrus detection index and conception rates; these associations were potentially modified by time between veterinary herd health visits. Calving-to-treatment intervals (mean ± sd) were 100.4 ± 55.1 days for first treatments only, and 116.2 ± 66.1 days for all treatments. These values varied considerably among herds and years and among reasons for treatment. Much of the variation in proportions of lactations in which treatment was used and in the time of treatment within lactations could not be accounted for with the variables included in this study, and was probably related to individual considerations for each cow.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cerebrospinal fluid and serum were obtained from 17 adult, healthy llamas (9 males, 1 castrated male, and 7 females). Osmolality; activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase; and concentrations of glucose, sodium, chloride, potassium, total protein, and albumin were determined in serum and CSF. Total and differential cell counts were determined in CSF, and electrophoresis of CSF proteins was performed.

Total nucleated cell count was low, 0 to 3/μl, which is lower than that reported for other domestic species and is similar to values in healthy people. Differential leukocyte percentages were disparate depending on the degree of blood contamination. Blood contamination influenced the percentage of neutrophils and eosinophils in CSF. Samples with few erythrocytes had differential leukocyte distribution similar to that of other species: mostly lymphocytes, fewer monocytoid cells, and scant neutrophils. Older llamas had a few eosinophils in the CSF.

Total protein, albumin, and γ-globulin concentrations in llamas were similar to values in cattle and were higher than values in most domestic species. Glucose concentration in CSF was approximately 40% of the value in serum (nonruminant animals and peoply typically have CSF glucose concentration that is approximately 60 to 80% of the serum glucose concentration). Sodium and Cl concentrations in CSF were higher than those in serum, whereas K concentration was lower in CSF, compared with serum. Activities of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in CSF were markedly lower than those in serum, and the ranges of values in this group of healthy llamas were narrow.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish reference range values for synovial fluid from clinically normal New World camelids.

Animals—15 llamas and 15 alpacas.

Procedure—Llamas and alpacas were anesthetized with an IM injection of a xylazine hydrochloride, butorphanol tartrate, and ketamine hydrochloride combination. Synovial fluid (1 to 2 ml) was obtained by aseptic arthrocentesis from the radiocarpal and tarsocrural joints. Synovial fluid evaluation included determination of total nucleated cell count (NCC), absolute number and percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear leukocytes, total protein, and specific gravity.

Results—Synovial fluid evaluation revealed a total NCC of 100 to 1,400 cells/μl (mean ± SD, 394.8 ± 356.2 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 295.2 to 494.6 cells/μl). Mononuclear leukocytes were the predominant cell type with lymphocytes, composing 50 to 90% (mean, 75.6 ± 17.2%; 95% CI, 70.8 to 80.4%) of the mononuclear leukocytes. Approximately 0 to 12% (mean, 1.3 ± 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.49 to 2.11%) of the cells were PMN leukocytes. Total protein concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 3.8 g/dl (mean, 2.54 ± 0.29 g/dl; 95% CI, 2.46 to 2.62 g/dl); the specific gravity ranged between 1.010 and 1.026 (mean, 1.017 ± 0.003; 95% CI, 1.016 to 1.018).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In llamas and alpacas, significant differences do not exist between species or between limbs (left vs right) or joints (radiocarpal vs tarsocrural) for synovial fluid values. Total NCC and absolute number and percentage of PMN and mononuclear leukocyte are similar to those of other ruminants and horses. However, synovial fluid total protein concentrations in New World camelids are high, compared with other domestic species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:576–578)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research