Objective—To establish reference range values for
synovial fluid from clinically normal New World
Animals—15 llamas and 15 alpacas.
Procedure—Llamas and alpacas were anesthetized
with an IM injection of a xylazine hydrochloride, butorphanol
tartrate, and ketamine hydrochloride combination.
Synovial fluid (1 to 2 ml) was obtained by aseptic
arthrocentesis from the radiocarpal and tarsocrural
joints. Synovial fluid evaluation included determination
of total nucleated cell count (NCC), absolute
number and percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN)
and mononuclear leukocytes, total protein, and specific
Results—Synovial fluid evaluation revealed a total
NCC of 100 to 1,400 cells/μl (mean ± SD, 394.8 ±
356.2 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 295.2 to
494.6 cells/μl). Mononuclear leukocytes were the predominant
cell type with lymphocytes, composing 50
to 90% (mean, 75.6 ± 17.2%; 95% CI, 70.8 to 80.4%)
of the mononuclear leukocytes. Approximately 0 to
12% (mean, 1.3 ± 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.49 to 2.11%) of
the cells were PMN leukocytes. Total protein concentrations
ranged from 2.0 to 3.8 g/dl (mean, 2.54 ±
0.29 g/dl; 95% CI, 2.46 to 2.62 g/dl); the specific gravity
ranged between 1.010 and 1.026 (mean, 1.017 ±
0.003; 95% CI, 1.016 to 1.018).
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In llamas and
alpacas, significant differences do not exist between
species or between limbs (left vs right) or joints
(radiocarpal vs tarsocrural) for synovial fluid values.
Total NCC and absolute number and percentage of
PMN and mononuclear leukocyte are similar to those
of other ruminants and horses. However, synovial
fluid total protein concentrations in New World
camelids are high, compared with other domestic
species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:576–578)
Objective—To determine whether administration of a
microdose of prostaglandin at the BAI HUI acupuncture
point offers any advantage over IM injections for luteolysis,
ovulatory interval, or systemic response in mares.
Animals—17 mature cycling mares, 3 to 20 years of
age and weighing 400 to 500 kg.
Procedure—Conventional and microdoses of the
prostaglandin dinoprost tromethamine (PGF2α), the
analogue cloprostenol, or sterile water (control) were
administered to mares in 7 treatment groups.
Treatments were assigned by dose, administration site
(semimembranosus, semitendinosus, or lumbosacral
region), and treatment type (PGF2α, analogue, or sterile
water). Mares were observed for ovulatory interval and
systemic response to treatment, including heart, and
respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and sweat score.
Plasma progesterone concentrations were also determined
at the time of treatment and at 24-hour intervals
for 96 hours following treatment.
Results—Ovulatory interval was shortened and progesterone
concentrations decreased in prostaglandintreated
mares, compared with control mares, regardless
of dose or treatment site. However, no differences
in ovulatory interval were observed among
prostaglandin-treated mares. Mares treated with conventional
doses of PGF2α had greater systemic
responses than mares treated with microdoses of
PGF2α or sterile water.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration
of prostaglandins at the BAI HUI acupuncture
point does not appear to offer any advantage over
administration at standard IM injection sites for induction
of luteolysis or to shorten the ovulatory interval.
However, administration of a microdose of the analogue
cloprostenol was effective at inducing luteolysis
and shortening ovulatory interval regardless of administration
site. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1285–1289)
Objective—To determine clinical and radiographic
findings, treatment, and outcome for llamas with
Procedure—Medical records of llamas admitted
between 1993 and 1998 because of long-bone fractures
were reviewed. Data collected included age,
sex, type of fracture, method of fracture repair, and
postoperative complications. The Fisher exact test
was used to compare age and sex of the llamas with
long-bone fractures with those of the hospital population
of llamas. All owners were contacted by telephone
to determine perceived postoperative problems
and whether the llamas were able to perform as
Results—Mean age was 160.8 days (range, 23 to 365
days). There was 1 male and 5 females. Fractures
were more likely to occur in young llamas (≤ 1 year
old) than in adults. Five of the fractures were attributed
to traumatic episodes. Long bones affected
included the tibia (n = 2), radius (2), femur (1), and
humerus (1). Internal fixation with lag screws, plating,
or both was performed on fractures of all llamas
except 1; that llama was treated by use of confinement
to a stall. None of the llamas had intraoperative
complications, but postoperative complications were
reported in 2 llamas. All fractures healed eventually,
and clients were pleased with outcomes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-bone
fractures in llamas are uncommon. Several types of
long bone fractures can be successfully repaired by
use of internal fixation, resulting in few complications
and minimal convalescent time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine whether testicular needle
biopsy is detrimental to testicular function in clinically
Animals—6 mixed-breed mature bulls.
Procedure—A randomly selected testicle from each
bull was biopsied with a 14-gauge needle biopsy
instrument. Bulls were then evaluated over a 90-day
period for changes in scrotal temperature and thermal
patterns, ultrasonographic appearance, and quality of
spermatozoa. At the end of the 90-day study, bulls
were castrated, and testicles were examined grossly
Results—Changes were detected in scrotal temperatures
and thermal patterns and in the breeding soundness
examination results during the first 2 weeks of
the study. However, there were no long-term
changes in semen quality over the course of the
experiment. Hyperechoic areas were detected on
ultrasonographic examination and corresponded to
the areas of penetration by the biopsy instrument.
Microscopic lesions that were indicative of testicular
dysfunction were not found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that testicular biopsy is a safe procedure in bulls.
Testicular biopsy could possibly be used to further
examine bulls that have less than satisfactory results
for breeding soundness examinations. (J Am Vet Med