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  • Author or Editor: James G. W. Wenzel x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether administration of a microdose of prostaglandin at the BAI HUI acupuncture point offers any advantage over IM injections for luteolysis, ovulatory interval, or systemic response in mares.

Animals—17 mature cycling mares, 3 to 20 years of age and weighing 400 to 500 kg.

Procedure—Conventional and microdoses of the prostaglandin dinoprost tromethamine (PGF), the analogue cloprostenol, or sterile water (control) were administered to mares in 7 treatment groups. Treatments were assigned by dose, administration site (semimembranosus, semitendinosus, or lumbosacral region), and treatment type (PGF, analogue, or sterile water). Mares were observed for ovulatory interval and systemic response to treatment, including heart, and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and sweat score. Plasma progesterone concentrations were also determined at the time of treatment and at 24-hour intervals for 96 hours following treatment.

Results—Ovulatory interval was shortened and progesterone concentrations decreased in prostaglandintreated mares, compared with control mares, regardless of dose or treatment site. However, no differences in ovulatory interval were observed among prostaglandin-treated mares. Mares treated with conventional doses of PGF had greater systemic responses than mares treated with microdoses of PGF or sterile water.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of prostaglandins at the BAI HUI acupuncture point does not appear to offer any advantage over administration at standard IM injection sites for induction of luteolysis or to shorten the ovulatory interval. However, administration of a microdose of the analogue cloprostenol was effective at inducing luteolysis and shortening ovulatory interval regardless of administration site. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1285–1289)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish reference range values for synovial fluid from clinically normal New World camelids.

Animals—15 llamas and 15 alpacas.

Procedure—Llamas and alpacas were anesthetized with an IM injection of a xylazine hydrochloride, butorphanol tartrate, and ketamine hydrochloride combination. Synovial fluid (1 to 2 ml) was obtained by aseptic arthrocentesis from the radiocarpal and tarsocrural joints. Synovial fluid evaluation included determination of total nucleated cell count (NCC), absolute number and percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear leukocytes, total protein, and specific gravity.

Results—Synovial fluid evaluation revealed a total NCC of 100 to 1,400 cells/μl (mean ± SD, 394.8 ± 356.2 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 295.2 to 494.6 cells/μl). Mononuclear leukocytes were the predominant cell type with lymphocytes, composing 50 to 90% (mean, 75.6 ± 17.2%; 95% CI, 70.8 to 80.4%) of the mononuclear leukocytes. Approximately 0 to 12% (mean, 1.3 ± 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.49 to 2.11%) of the cells were PMN leukocytes. Total protein concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 3.8 g/dl (mean, 2.54 ± 0.29 g/dl; 95% CI, 2.46 to 2.62 g/dl); the specific gravity ranged between 1.010 and 1.026 (mean, 1.017 ± 0.003; 95% CI, 1.016 to 1.018).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In llamas and alpacas, significant differences do not exist between species or between limbs (left vs right) or joints (radiocarpal vs tarsocrural) for synovial fluid values. Total NCC and absolute number and percentage of PMN and mononuclear leukocyte are similar to those of other ruminants and horses. However, synovial fluid total protein concentrations in New World camelids are high, compared with other domestic species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:576–578)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome for llamas with long-bone fractures.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—6 llamas.

Procedure—Medical records of llamas admitted between 1993 and 1998 because of long-bone fractures were reviewed. Data collected included age, sex, type of fracture, method of fracture repair, and postoperative complications. The Fisher exact test was used to compare age and sex of the llamas with long-bone fractures with those of the hospital population of llamas. All owners were contacted by telephone to determine perceived postoperative problems and whether the llamas were able to perform as expected.

Results—Mean age was 160.8 days (range, 23 to 365 days). There was 1 male and 5 females. Fractures were more likely to occur in young llamas (≤ 1 year old) than in adults. Five of the fractures were attributed to traumatic episodes. Long bones affected included the tibia (n = 2), radius (2), femur (1), and humerus (1). Internal fixation with lag screws, plating, or both was performed on fractures of all llamas except 1; that llama was treated by use of confinement to a stall. None of the llamas had intraoperative complications, but postoperative complications were reported in 2 llamas. All fractures healed eventually, and clients were pleased with outcomes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-bone fractures in llamas are uncommon. Several types of long bone fractures can be successfully repaired by use of internal fixation, resulting in few complications and minimal convalescent time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1291–1293)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether testicular needle biopsy is detrimental to testicular function in clinically normal bulls.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 mixed-breed mature bulls.

Procedure—A randomly selected testicle from each bull was biopsied with a 14-gauge needle biopsy instrument. Bulls were then evaluated over a 90-day period for changes in scrotal temperature and thermal patterns, ultrasonographic appearance, and quality of spermatozoa. At the end of the 90-day study, bulls were castrated, and testicles were examined grossly and histologically.

Results—Changes were detected in scrotal temperatures and thermal patterns and in the breeding soundness examination results during the first 2 weeks of the study. However, there were no long-term changes in semen quality over the course of the experiment. Hyperechoic areas were detected on ultrasonographic examination and corresponded to the areas of penetration by the biopsy instrument. Microscopic lesions that were indicative of testicular dysfunction were not found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that testicular biopsy is a safe procedure in bulls. Testicular biopsy could possibly be used to further examine bulls that have less than satisfactory results for breeding soundness examinations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:507–512)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association