Objective—To determine whether Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (Mhm) can be transmitted by ingestion of Mycoplasma-infected Ctenocephalides felis and by-products (feces, larvae, and eggs).
Procedure—3 cats were carriers of Mhf, and 1 was a carrier of Mhm. Six cats had negative results of PCR assay for Mhf and Mhm DNA. A chamber containing 100 C felis was bandaged to 2 Mhf carrier cats. Five days later, fleas and by-products were analyzed for Mycoplasma spp DNA. The remaining fleas and a sample of by-products were fed to 2 Mycoplasma-naïve cats. A chamber containing 200 C felis was bandaged to the Mhm carrier cat. Five days later, fleas and by-products were analyzed for Mycoplasma spp DNA. The remaining fleas and a sample of by-products were fed to 2 Mycoplasma-naïve cats. A chamber containing 200 C felis was bandaged to an Mhf carrier cat and Mhm-carrier cat. Three days later, fleas and by-products were analyzed for Mycoplasma spp DNA. The remaining fleas and a random sample of by products were fed to 4 Mycoplasma-naïve cats. All cats were monitored for infection for ≥7 weeks.
Results—Uptake of Mhf and Mhm DNA into fleas and by-products was detected. None of the naïve cats became infected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ingestion of Mycoplasma-infected C felis or by-products is not an important means of transmission for Mhf or Mhm.
Sample Population—587 households in Alachua
County, Florida, surveyed between March 1 and May
Procedure—Telephone surveys were conducted, and
respondents were asked questions about feeding of
unowned free-roaming cats.
Results—70 (12%) households fed free-roaming cats;
mean ± SD number of free-roaming cats fed per household
was 3.6 ± 1.9. Households that fed free-roaming
cats were more likely to own pet cats than were households
that did not feed free-roaming cats; however, 30
of 70 (43%) households feeding free-roaming cats did
not own cats or dogs. Although the percentage of pet
cats that were neutered was high (90%), only 8 (11%)
households that fed free-roaming cats attempted to
have such cats neutered. The free-roaming cat population
was estimated to represent approximately 44% of
the population of cats in the county.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that unowned free-roaming cats may represent a
substantial portion of the total cat population in a
region. Public policies and education programs aimed
at reducing cat overpopulation should include provisions
for neutering unowned free-roaming cats, and
efforts should target the general public, not only pet
owners, because not all households that feed
unowned free-roaming cats own pets. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To determine whether Ctenocephalides
felis can transmit Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and
Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (Mhm)
through hematophagous activity between cats.
Procedure—2 cats were carriers of either Mhf or
Mhm. Nine cats had negative results via polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) assay for Mhf and Mhm DNA; 3
of those cats were infected from the chronic carriers
via IV inoculation of blood. At the time of maximum
organism count for each of the Mycoplasma spp, 1
chamber containing 100 C felis was bandaged to the
amplifier cats. Five days later, fleas, feces, larvae, or
eggs from each chamber were analyzed for
Mycoplasma spp DNA. Viable fleas from the chambers
were allocated into new chambers (3 Mhm and
6 Mhf) and attached to naïve cats for 5 days. Cats
were monitored daily for clinical signs and weekly via
CBC and PCR assay for infection with Mhf or Mhm for
a minimum of 8 weeks.
Results—Uptake of Mhf and Mhm DNA into fleas,
feces, and, potentially, eggs and larvae was detected.
Of the naïve cats fed on by Mhf-infected fleas, 1 cat
transiently yielded positive PCR assay results for Mhf
on 1 sampling date without clinical or hematologic
changes consistent with Mhf infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that hematophagous transfer of Mhm and Mhf
into fleas occurred and that C felis is a possible vector
for Mhf via hematophagous activity. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1008–1012)
Objective—To identify major risk factors associated with anesthetic-related death in dogs.
Animals—148 dogs that died or were euthanized within 48 hours after undergoing anesthesia or sedation and for which anesthesia could not be reasonably excluded as a contributory factor (cases) and 487 control dogs that did not die within 48 hours after undergoing anesthesia or sedation (controls).
Procedures—Details of patient characteristics, preoperative evaluation and preparation, procedure, anesthetic and sedative agents used, monitoring, postoperative management, and personnel involved were recorded. Mixed-effects logistic regression modeling was used to identify factors associated with anesthetic-related death.
Results—An increase in physical status grade, urgency of the procedure, age, or intended duration of the procedure; a decrease in body weight; anesthesia for a major versus a minor procedure; and use of injectable agents for anesthetic induction and halothane for maintenance or use of inhalant anesthetics alone (compared with use of injectable agents for induction and isoflurane for maintenance) were associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results suggested that specific factors could be associated with increased odds of anesthetic-related death in dogs. Knowledge of these factors should aid the preoperative assessment and perioperative management of dogs undergoing anesthesia and sedation.