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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the rate of postoperative dehiscence on the basis of intraoperative anastomotic leak test results (ie, positive or negative for leakage or testing not performed) between dogs that underwent hand-sewn anastomosis (HSA) or functional end-to-end stapled anastomosis (FEESA) of the small intestine.

ANIMALS

131 client-owned dogs that underwent 144 small intestinal anastomoses (94 FEESA and 50 HSA).

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify dogs that had undergone a small intestinal anastomosis (HSA or FEESA) from January 2008 through October 2019. Data were collected regarding signalment, indication for surgery, location of the anastomosis, surgical technique, the presence of preoperative septic peritonitis, performance of intraoperative leak testing, development of postoperative dehiscence, and duration of follow-up.

RESULTS

Intraoperative leak testing was performed during 62 of 144 (43.1%) small intestinal anastomoses, which included 26 of 94 (27.7%) FEESAs and 36 of 50 (72.0%) HSAs. Thirteen of 144 (9.0%) anastomoses underwent dehiscence after surgery (median, 4 days; range, 2 to 17 days), with subsequent septic peritonitis, including 10 of 94 (10.6%) FEESAs and 3 of 50 (6.0%) HSAs. The incidence of postoperative dehiscence was not significantly different between FEESAs and HSAs; between anastomoses that underwent intraoperative leak testing and those that did not, regardless of anastomotic technique; or between anastomoses with positive and negative leak test results. Hand-sewn anastomoses were significantly more likely to undergo leak testing than FEESAs. Preoperative septic peritonitis, use of omental or serosal reinforcement, preoperative serum albumin concentration, and surgical indication were not significantly different between anastomotic techniques.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Performance of intraoperative anastomotic leak testing, regardless of the anastomotic technique, was not associated with a reduction in the incidence of postoperative anastomotic dehiscence.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare joint stability and ultimate strength among 4 prosthetic ligament constructs for repair of tarsal medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury in dogs.

SAMPLE

13 canine cadavers (26 hind limbs).

PROCEDURES

Each limb was stripped of all soft tissues except those associated with the tarsal joint and assigned to 1 of 4 prosthetic ligament constructs. The AN construct consisted of 3 bone anchors connected with monofilament nylon suture. The AU construct consisted of low-profile suture anchors connected with multifilament ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture. The TN and TU constructs involved the creation of 3 bone tunnels and use of nylon or UHMWPE suture, respectively. Each limb underwent biomechanical testing before and after MCL transection and before and after cyclic range-of-motion testing following completion of the assigned construct. Tarsal joint stability (extent of laxity) was assessed with the joint in each of 3 positions (75°, 135°, and 165°). After completion of biomechanical testing, each limb was tested to failure to determine the ultimate strength of the construct.

RESULTS

Relative to intact tarsal joints, joint laxity was significantly increased following completion of all 4 constructs. Construct type was not associated with the magnitude of change in joint laxity. Ultimate strength was greatest for the UHMWPE-suture constructs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that all 4 constructs effectively stabilized MCL-deficient tarsal joints. Implants used for the TU, TN, and AU constructs had a lower profile than those used for the AN construct, which may be clinically advantageous. In vivo studies are warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a flotation vest (FV) and water flow rate (WFR) on limb kinematics of dogs swimming against a current.

ANIMALS

7 (1 male and 6 female) healthy adult Siberian Huskies.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were habituated to swim with and without an FV beside an investigator in a continuous-flow pool against WFRs up to 2.9 km/h. During each of 4 experimental sessions in a repeated-measures study, markers were wrapped around the right carpus and tarsus, and a video was recorded while each dog swam with or without an FV for about 2 minutes at each of 7 WFRs between 0 and 2.9 km/h when the WFR was incrementally decreased or increased. Motion tracking software was used to measure stroke excursion and frequency.

RESULTS

Stroke excursion varied more than frequency among all dogs and in response to changes in experimental conditions. The male dog and 1 female dog were unable to complete the study. For the remaining 5 dogs across all experimental conditions, mean tarsus excursion was 30% that of the carpus. Mean total excursion (sum of the excursion-frequency products for the carpus and tarsus) decreased when an FV was worn and increased with WFR by 69% and 19% when WFR was incrementally increased and decreased, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs, range of motion during swimming was greater for the carpus than tarsus, when an FV was not worn, and increased more with WFR when WFR was incrementally increased. Those factors should be considered during swimming-based rehabilitation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time

ANIMALS

100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.

PROCEDURES

In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.

RESULTS

100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association