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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Three methods of determining glomerular filtration rate (gfr) were performed in adult ferrets, 9 months to 7 years old. Endogenous creatinine clearance was determined, using serum and urine creatinine values obtained during 24- and 48-hour collection periods from 27 ferrets housed in metabolic cages. Creatinine and radiolabeled inulin were administered to 12 female ferrets by constant iv infusion during isoflurane-induced anesthesia. Serial 20-minute urine collections, together with serum samples obtained at the midpoint of urine collection, provided measures for clearance calculations of these substances. Mean ± sd endogenous creatinine clearance in ferrets for metabolic cage collections was 2.50 ± 0.93 ml/min/ kg of body weight. There were no significant differences between the 24- and 48-hour clearance rates. Mean inulin clearance was 3.02 ± 1.78, and mean exogenous creatinine clearance was 3.32 ± 2.16 ml/ min/kg. Analysis of variance, using least-squared means adjustment, did not yield any significant differences between inulin and exogenous creatinine clearance rates. Exogenous creatinine clearance-to-inulin clearance ratio was 0.99 ± 0.46, and there was significant correlation between the 2 methods (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Significant body temperature effects on inulin or exogenous creatinine clearance were not found. Infused inulin clearance, the generally preferred method for gfr calculation in mammalian species, was significantly (P = 0.0069) higher in younger (3.65 ml/min/kg) vs older ferrets (2.29 ml/min/kg). Results of this study indicate that inulin clearance is an adequate measure of gfr in ferrets as it is in other species. Compared with inulin clearance, exogenous creatinine clearance also provides a reliable estimate of gfr in ferrets.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effect of oral administration of melatonin on clinical signs, tumor size, and serum steroid hormone concentrations in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.

Design—Noncontrolled clinical trial.

Animals—10 adult ferrets with clinical signs of adrenocortical disease (confirmed via serum steroid hormone concentration assessments).

Procedures—Melatonin (0.5 mg) was administered orally to ferrets once daily for 1 year. At 4-month intervals, a complete physical examination; abdominal ultrasonographic examination (including adrenal gland measurement); CBC; serum biochemical analyses; and assessment of serum estradiol, androstenedione, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were performed. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were evaluated at the first, second, and last examinations, and serum cortisol concentration was evaluated at the first and last examinations.

Results—Daily oral administration of melatonin greatly affected clinical signs of adrenocortical disease in ferrets; changes included hair regrowth, decreased pruritus, increased activity level and appetite, and decreased vulva or prostate size. Mean width of the abnormally large adrenal glands was significantly increased after the 12-month treatment period. Recurrence of clinical signs was detected in 6 ferrets at the 8-month evaluation. Compared with pretreatment values, serum 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and prolactin concentrations were significantly increased and decreased after 12 months, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that melatonin is a useful, easily administered, palliative treatment to decrease clinical signs associated with adrenocortical disease in ferrets, and positive effects of daily treatment were evident for at least an 8-month period. Oral administration of melatonin did not decrease adrenal gland tumor growth in treated ferrets.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.


10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.


A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.


SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.


This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association