A 4-month-old female chicken with a 48-hour history of progressively worsening, unilateral ocular discharge and periocular swelling was submitted for necropsy. This hen was in a flock of 18 chickens that, at any given time, included 4 to 8 similarly affected chickens. The flock was treated for 1 month with oxytetracycline-medicated feed on the basis of the veterinarian's recommendations. The affected chickens' condition improved after treatment, but clinical signs never completely resolved. Within the 48-hour period prior to death of the hen, its left eye started to progressively swell. Three other hens in the flock reportedly had mild periocular
Objective—To compare differential cell counts and
cell characteristics of CSF samples analyzed immediately
or after storage for 24 and 48 hours at 4 C with
and without the addition of autologous serum.
Animals—36 dogs and 6 cats.
Procedure—CSF samples were collected from the
cerebellomedullary cistern and divided into 250-μl
aliquots. Slides of CSF samples were prepared by use
of cytocentrifugation immediately and after 24 and 48
hours of storage with addition of autologous serum
(final concentrations, 11 and 29%). Differential cell
counts and number of unrecognizable cells were
compared among preparations.
Results—Significant differences in the differential
cell counts were not detected among samples analyzed
before or after storage. Although the number of
unrecognizable cells increased with storage time,
this did not result in a significant effect on cell distribution
or diagnosis. Cells in CSF samples stored with
11% serum more closely resembled cells in fresh
samples than did cells in samples stored with 29%
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CSF samples
collected at veterinary clinics remote from a diagnostic
laboratory or during nonoperational hours may be
preserved through the addition of autologous serum.
Evaluation of such samples is likely to result in an
accurate diagnosis for at least 48 hours after collection.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1761–1764)
Objective—To compare CBC results obtained by use
of an in-house centrifugal analyzer with results of a
Sample Population—Blood samples from 147 dogs,
42 cats, and 60 horses admitted to a veterinary teaching
hospital and from 24 cows in a commercial dairy
Procedure—Results obtained with the centrifugal
analyzer were compared with results obtained with
an electrical-impedance light-scatter hematology analyzer
and manual differential cell counting (reference
Results—The centrifugal analyzer yielded error messages
for 50 of 273 (18%) samples. Error messages
were most common for samples with values outside
established reference ranges. Correlation coefficients
ranged from 0.80 to 0.99 for Hct, 0.55 to 0.90 for
platelet count, 0.76 to 0.95 for total WBC count, and
0.63 (cattle) to 0.82 (cats) to 0.95 (dogs and horses)
for granulocyte count. Coefficients for mononuclear
cell (combined lymphocyte and monocyte) counts
were 0.56, 0.65, 0.68, and 0.92 for cats, horses, dogs,
and cattle, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that there was an excellent correlation
between results of the centrifugal analyzer and
results of the reference method only for Hct in feline,
canine, and equine samples; WBC count in canine
and equine samples; granulocyte count in canine and
equine samples; and reticulocyte count in canine
samples. However, an inability to identify abnormal
cells, the high percentage of error messages, particularly
for samples with abnormal WBC counts, and the
wide confidence intervals precluded reliance on differential
cell counts obtained with the centrifugal
analyzer. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1195–1200)
To use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to characterize renal transcriptional activities of genes associated with proinflammatory and profibrotic pathways in ischemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats.
Banked renal tissues from 6 cats with experimentally induced CKD (renal ischemia [RI] group) and 9 healthy cats (control group).
Transcriptome analysis with RNAseq, followed by gene ontology and cluster analyses, were performed on banked tissue samples of the right kidneys (control kidneys) from cats in the control group and of both kidneys from cats in the RI group, in which unilateral (right) RI had been induced 6 months before the cats were euthanized and the ischemic kidneys (IKs) and contralateral nonischemic kidneys (CNIKs) were harvested. Results for the IKs, CNIKs, and control kidneys were compared to identify potential differentially expressed genes and overrepresented proinflammatory and profibrotic pathways.
Genes from the gene ontology pathways of collagen binding (eg, transforming growth factor-β1), metalloendopeptidase activity (eg, metalloproteinase [MMP]-7, MMP-9, MMP-11, MMP-13, MMP-16, MMP-23B, and MMP-28), chemokine activity, and T-cell migration were overrepresented as upregulated in tissue samples of the IKs versus control kidneys. Genes associated with the extracellular matrix (eg, TIMP-1, fibulin-1, secreted phosphoprotein-1, matrix Gla protein, and connective tissue growth factor) were upregulated in tissue samples from both the IKs and CNIKs, compared with tissues from the control kidneys.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Unilateral ischemic injury differentially altered gene expression in both kidneys, compared with control kidneys. Fibulin-1, secreted phosphoprotein-1, and matrix Gla protein may be candidate biomarkers of active kidney injury in cats.
To characterize transcription of profibrotic mediators in renal tissues of cats with ischemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Banked renal tissues from 6 cats with experimentally induced CKD (RI group) and 8 healthy control cats.
For cats of the RI group, both kidneys were harvested 6 months after ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in 1 kidney. For control cats, the right kidney was evaluated. All kidney specimens were histologically examined for fibrosis, inflammation, and tubular atrophy. Renal tissue homogenates underwent reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay evaluation to characterize gene transcription of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), transforming growth factor-β1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Gene transcription and histologic lesions were compared among ischemic and contralateral kidneys of the RI group and control kidneys.
Ischemic kidneys had greater transcript levels of MMP-7, MMP-9, and transforming growth factor-β1 relative to control kidneys and of MMP-2 relative to contralateral kidneys. Transcription of TIMP-1 was upregulated and that of vascular endothelial growth factor A was downregulated in ischemic and contralateral kidneys relative to control kidneys. Transcription of HIF-1α did not differ among kidney groups. For ischemic kidneys, there were strong positive correlations between transcription of HIF-1α, MMP-2, MMP-7, and TIMP-1 and severity of fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Transcription of genes involved in profibrotic pathways remained altered in both kidneys 6 months after transient renal ischemia. This suggested that a single unilateral renal insult can have lasting effects on both kidneys.
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.