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  • Author or Editor: James A. Zagzebski x
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To determine the usefulness of a new method of measuring acoustic backscatter and attenuation in the liver of dogs with experimental steroid-induced hepatopathy.


10 clinically normal dogs.


Steroid hepatopathy was induced by daily injections of prednisone (2 mg/kg of body weight, IM). Dogs were evaluated histologically and were sonographically imaged on days 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Acoustic backscatter and attenuation were measured from in vivo images of dogs, using a video signal method, and compared with results obtained from analysis of the unprocessed radio frequency signal.


Histologic evaluation revealed midzonal, predominantly water-filled vacuoles in hepatocytes by day 7, which persisted for the remainder of the study and significantly (P = 0.0001) increased liver weight on day 14. Attenuation and backscatter increased during the experimental period. Mean effective attenuation difference was higher (P = 0.015) in the liver imaged through a left paraxyphoid window in experimental dogs by day 3. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater attenuation persisted in the liver of experimental dogs throughout the experimental period. Mean backscatter ratio was significantly increased (P = 0.02) by day 10. Uncorrected pixel intensity of the liver in 2 experimental dogs was approximately equal to that of the spleen on day 10 and greater than that of the spleen on day 14.


Administration of prednisone to dogs results in increased acoustic backscatter and attenuation in the liver.

Clinical Relevance

The video signal method is a sensitive technique for detecting subtle acoustic changes in the liver of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1690–1694)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate propagation velocity of acoustic waves through the lens and vitreous body of pigs, dogs, and rabbits and determine whether there were associations between acoustic wave speed and age, temperature, and time after enucleation.

Sample Population—9 pig, 40 dog, and 20 rabbit lenses and 16 pig, 17 dog, and 23 rabbit vitreous bodies.

Procedure—Acoustic wave velocities through the ocular structures were measured by use of the substitution technique.

Results—Mean sound wave velocities in lenses of pigs, dogs, and rabbits were 1,681, 1,707, and 1,731 m/s, respectively, at 36°C. Mean sound wave velocities in the vitreous body of pigs, dogs, and rabbits were 1,535, 1,535, and 1,534 m/s, respectively, at 38°C. The sound wave speed through the vitreous humor, but not the lens, increased linearly with temperature. An association between wave speed and age was observed in the rabbit tissues. Time after enucleation did not affect the velocity of sound in the lens or vitreous body. The sound wave speed conversion factors for lenses, calculated with respect to human ocular tissue at 36°C, were 1.024, 1.040, and 1.055 for pig, dog, and rabbit lenses, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Conversion factors for the speed of sound through lens tissues are needed to avoid underestimation of the thickness of the lens and axial length of the eye in dogs during comparative A-mode ultrasound examinations. These findings are important for accurate calculation of intraocular lens power required to achieve emmetropia in veterinary patients after surgical lens extraction.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research