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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 8-year-old castrated male Boxer and a 10-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier were evaluated because of dyspnea. In both dogs, the dyspnea persisted after elongated soft palate resection.

Clinical Findings—Laryngoscopic examination revealed caudal displacement of the epiglottis into the rima glottidis in both dogs. Excessive mobility of the epiglottis during respiration with episodic obstruction of the rima glottidis by the epiglottis was observed during fluoroscopic examination.

Treatment and Outcome—The epiglottis of both dogs was fixed in a horizontal plane by resection of a band of oral mucosa at the base of the epiglottis and closure of the mucosal defect with sutures. Fixation of the epiglottis resolved the dyspnea in both dogs.

Clinical Relevance—Excessive mobility of the epiglottis can predispose to glottic obstruction and cause dyspnea in dogs. Fixation of the epiglottis in a horizontal plane may resolve dyspnea caused by epiglottic retroversion in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe effects of season on milk production in Holstein dairy cows and to determine the location and effectiveness of fans and sprinklers in the management of stress attributable to season.

Design

Longitudinal observational study.

Animals

141 dairy herds for which owners used the Dairy Herd Improvement Association's database for production and reproduction record keeping.

Procedure

Owners were interviewed to identify location of fans, shade structures, and sprinklers. Production and reproduction data were retrieved from the database, and a mixed model ANOVA was used to estimate effects of season, parity, and use of sprinklers, and fans on milk production.

Results

Daily peak milk production decreased for all parity groups in the summer, but the effect decreased with increasing days in lactation. Use of sprinklers increased peak milk production in parity-1 and -3 or higher cows, but use of fans did not significantly alter effects of season. After calving in the summer, 305-day milk production decreased in parity-2 and -3 cows. This decrease was not significantly modified by the presence of sprinklers or fans.

Clinical Implications

Use of sprinklers may increase peak milk production in high-producing cows and could be recommended for reducing heat and total stress during this time. Production-oriented veterinarians should be cautious when recommending use of sprinklers and fans to increase production because of the wide confidence intervals describing their effectiveness. Management of parity-2 or higher cows so that they calve from October to June could increase 305-day milk production. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:85–88)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the effect of transrectal palpation (TRP) performed with the fetal membrane slip (FMS) technique for early pregnancy diagnosis on the proportion and type of associated pregnancy losses (PLs) in dairy cattle.

ANIMALS

580 healthy pregnant cattle.

PROCEDURES

Data for artificially inseminated females with 1 or 2 viable embryos detected by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) at approximately 30 days of gestation were retrospectively assessed. Cattle were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of whether they did or did not undergo TRP once between 34 and 41 days of gestation (palpation and control group, respectively). At approximately 45 and 60 days of gestation, all cattle were reevaluated by TRUS; PL was categorized as type I (FMS detectable by TRP and TRUS-confirmed evidence of embryo or fetus degeneration and a functional corpus luteum) or type II (FMS undetectable by TRP and no TRUS-confirmed evidence of an embryo or fetus or of a functional corpus luteum).

RESULTS

Of the 580 healthy pregnant cattle, 271 underwent TRP and 309 did not. In the palpation and control groups, PL occurred in 40 (14.8%) and 47 (15.2%) cattle, respectively. Among the palpation group's PLs, 17 (43%) were type I and 23 (58%) were type II. Among the control group's PLs, 27 (57%) were type I and 20 (43%) were type II. The prevalance and type of PL did not differ between groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

TRP with the FMS technique for early pregnancy diagnosis did not increase the prevalence of PL in dairy cattle or alert the proportion of type I versus type II PL.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To produce monoclonal antibodies (MAB) with specificity for the heavy chain of macaw IgG; to incorporate these MAB into an ELISA to measure IgG responses of macaws inoculated with bovine serum albumin (BSA); and to evaluate the antigenicity of BSA in Blue and Gold Macaws.

Animals

Four 1-year-old Blue and Gold Macaws, 2 males and 2 females.

Procedure

1 male and 1 female 1 were randomly assigned to each of 2 study groups. Group-1 birds were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA on days 0, 14, 28, and 42. Group-2 birds were inoculated with 200 μg of BSA on days 0 and 28. Blood was collected weekly for measurement of anti-BSA titer. Hybridomas were prepared from mice immunized with Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) IgG purified by salt precipitation and gel chromatography. Specificity for IgG of Scarlet Macaw and other macaw species was confirmed by ELISA and western blot analysis. Hybridoma HL544 was cloned and the antibody purified. Following biotinylation, MAB HL544 was incorporated into an ELISA that measured IgG responses of macaws inoculated with BSA.

Results

Adult Blue and Gold Macaws developed strong primary and secondary anti-BSA antibody titers 14 days after inoculation with 200 μg of BSA. An inoculation interval of 28 days resulted in stronger secondary responses than an interval of only 14 days.

Conclusions

MAB specific for macaw immunoglobulins can be used in ELISA to evaluate the humoral immune responses of macaws. 1-year-old Blue and Gold Macaws developed strong anti-BSA titer when inoculated with 200 μg of BSA. An inoculation interval of 28 days resulted in stronger secondary responses than did an interval of only 14 days.

Clinical Relevance

These MAB, the first reported to have specificity for a psittacine antibody class, will be useful in the evaluation of psittacine antibody responses and in the development of psittacine diagnostic assays. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:1157-1161)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine features of an early fetal loss (EFL) syndrome and evaluate potential risk factors for EFL in Thoroughbred broodmares on 4 farms in central Kentucky.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—288 pregnant broodmares.

Procedure—Year-2001 breeding records for 288 Thoroughbred broodmares were examined. Early fetal loss was defined as loss of a fetus that was viable at ≥ 40 days of gestation but was subsequently lost by 5 months of gestation.

Results—Overall 2001 EFL rate was 25% (73/288), median gestational age at time of fetal loss was 77 days, and median date of loss was May 7. Mares on 1 farm had significantly fewer fetal losses (5%) than mares on the other 3 farms (26 to 35%). Fetal losses were higher for maiden (42%) and barren (42%) mares than for foaling mares (18%). Fetal losses were greater in young than in older mares. Effects of broodmare farm, mare age, and reproductive status were all significant. Fetal losses were not associated with sire used for mating or stud farm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Greatest risk for EFL occurred during the period from late April to May (ie, in mares bred during February through March). Higher incidence of EFL in maiden and barren mares and lower incidence of EFL on 1 farm suggest management or environmental influences may have affected outcome. Risk factors that should be investigated include environmental differences among farms and differences in management procedures used for lactating versus nonlactating mares. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1828–1830)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy.

Clinical Findings—CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged.

Clinical Relevance—In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of palpation per rectum (PPR) by use of 1 or 2 fetal membrane slips (FMSs) for pregnancy diagnosis during early gestation on pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.

Design—Controlled, randomized block design.

Animals—928 healthy pregnant cattle.

Procedures—All cattle were determined to be pregnant by use of transrectal ultrasonography at approximately day 31 after estrus and randomly allocated into 2 groups (control group [n = 476 cows] and palpation group [452]). The control group was not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via PPR. The palpation group was subdivided into 2 groups (PPR FMS 1 [n = 230 cows] and PPR FMS 2 [222]), which involved PPR and pregnancy diagnosis via 1 or 2 FMSs, respectively, during the same examination, which was performed by 1 veterinarian between days 34 and 43 after estrus. All cattle were reevaluated by use of transrectal ultrasonography on days 45 and 60 to determine viability of the embryo and fetus, respectively.

Results—Overall pregnancy loss between days 31 and 60 was 14.1%. Pregnancy loss for the control, PPR FMS 1, and PPR FMS 2 groups from days 31 to 60 was 14.5%, 12.6%, and 14.9%, respectively. Embryonic pregnancy loss for the control, PPR FMS 1, and PPR FMS 2 groups was 12.4%, 9.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Fetal pregnancy loss for the same groups was 2.4%, 3.8%, and 5.9%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pregnancy diagnosis via 1 or 2 FMSs performed during PPR in early gestation did not increase pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association