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Case Description—An 8-year-old castrated male Boxer and a 10-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier were evaluated because of dyspnea. In both dogs, the dyspnea persisted after elongated soft palate resection.
Clinical Findings—Laryngoscopic examination revealed caudal displacement of the epiglottis into the rima glottidis in both dogs. Excessive mobility of the epiglottis during respiration with episodic obstruction of the rima glottidis by the epiglottis was observed during fluoroscopic examination.
Treatment and Outcome—The epiglottis of both dogs was fixed in a horizontal plane by resection of a band of oral mucosa at the base of the epiglottis and closure of the mucosal defect with sutures. Fixation of the epiglottis resolved the dyspnea in both dogs.
Clinical Relevance—Excessive mobility of the epiglottis can predispose to glottic obstruction and cause dyspnea in dogs. Fixation of the epiglottis in a horizontal plane may resolve dyspnea caused by epiglottic retroversion in dogs.
To assess the effect of transrectal palpation (TRP) performed with the fetal membrane slip (FMS) technique for early pregnancy diagnosis on the proportion and type of associated pregnancy losses (PLs) in dairy cattle.
580 healthy pregnant cattle.
Data for artificially inseminated females with 1 or 2 viable embryos detected by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) at approximately 30 days of gestation were retrospectively assessed. Cattle were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of whether they did or did not undergo TRP once between 34 and 41 days of gestation (palpation and control group, respectively). At approximately 45 and 60 days of gestation, all cattle were reevaluated by TRUS; PL was categorized as type I (FMS detectable by TRP and TRUS-confirmed evidence of embryo or fetus degeneration and a functional corpus luteum) or type II (FMS undetectable by TRP and no TRUS-confirmed evidence of an embryo or fetus or of a functional corpus luteum).
Of the 580 healthy pregnant cattle, 271 underwent TRP and 309 did not. In the palpation and control groups, PL occurred in 40 (14.8%) and 47 (15.2%) cattle, respectively. Among the palpation group's PLs, 17 (43%) were type I and 23 (58%) were type II. Among the control group's PLs, 27 (57%) were type I and 20 (43%) were type II. The prevalance and type of PL did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
TRP with the FMS technique for early pregnancy diagnosis did not increase the prevalence of PL in dairy cattle or alert the proportion of type I versus type II PL.
Objective—To determine features of an early fetal loss (EFL) syndrome and evaluate potential risk factors for EFL in Thoroughbred broodmares on 4 farms in central Kentucky.
Animals—288 pregnant broodmares.
Procedure—Year-2001 breeding records for 288 Thoroughbred broodmares were examined. Early fetal loss was defined as loss of a fetus that was viable at ≥ 40 days of gestation but was subsequently lost by 5 months of gestation.
Results—Overall 2001 EFL rate was 25% (73/288), median gestational age at time of fetal loss was 77 days, and median date of loss was May 7. Mares on 1 farm had significantly fewer fetal losses (5%) than mares on the other 3 farms (26 to 35%). Fetal losses were higher for maiden (42%) and barren (42%) mares than for foaling mares (18%). Fetal losses were greater in young than in older mares. Effects of broodmare farm, mare age, and reproductive status were all significant. Fetal losses were not associated with sire used for mating or stud farm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Greatest risk for EFL occurred during the period from late April to May (ie, in mares bred during February through March). Higher incidence of EFL in maiden and barren mares and lower incidence of EFL on 1 farm suggest management or environmental influences may have affected outcome. Risk factors that should be investigated include environmental differences among farms and differences in management procedures used for lactating versus nonlactating mares. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1828–1830)
Case Description—An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy.
Clinical Findings—CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged.
Clinical Relevance—In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.
Objective—To determine the effect of palpation per rectum (PPR) by use of 1 or 2 fetal membrane slips (FMSs) for pregnancy diagnosis during early gestation on pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.
Design—Controlled, randomized block design.
Animals—928 healthy pregnant cattle.
Procedures—All cattle were determined to be pregnant by use of transrectal ultrasonography at approximately day 31 after estrus and randomly allocated into 2 groups (control group [n = 476 cows] and palpation group ). The control group was not subjected to pregnancy diagnosis via PPR. The palpation group was subdivided into 2 groups (PPR FMS 1 [n = 230 cows] and PPR FMS 2 ), which involved PPR and pregnancy diagnosis via 1 or 2 FMSs, respectively, during the same examination, which was performed by 1 veterinarian between days 34 and 43 after estrus. All cattle were reevaluated by use of transrectal ultrasonography on days 45 and 60 to determine viability of the embryo and fetus, respectively.
Results—Overall pregnancy loss between days 31 and 60 was 14.1%. Pregnancy loss for the control, PPR FMS 1, and PPR FMS 2 groups from days 31 to 60 was 14.5%, 12.6%, and 14.9%, respectively. Embryonic pregnancy loss for the control, PPR FMS 1, and PPR FMS 2 groups was 12.4%, 9.1%, and 9.5%, respectively. Fetal pregnancy loss for the same groups was 2.4%, 3.8%, and 5.9%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pregnancy diagnosis via 1 or 2 FMSs performed during PPR in early gestation did not increase pregnancy loss in dairy cattle.
Objective—To determine risk factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal cicatrix syndrome (NCS) in horses.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—242 horses referred for endoscopic evaluation of the upper portion of the respiratory tract (121 horses with NCS and 121 control horses).
Procedures—Medical records of horses that had an endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway performed between January 2003 and December 2008 were reviewed. Signalment, housing management, and season of evaluation were recorded and reviewed for each horse. The associations between clinical signs and endoscopic findings were evaluated by the use of a prospective logistic model that included a Bayesian method for inference.
Results—Breed and sex had no significant effect on the risk of having NCS. The risk that a horse had NCS increased significantly with age. Exclusive housing in a stall was protective against the development of NCS. In addition, the amount of pasture turnout had a dose-related effect, with exclusive pasture turnout positively correlated with increased risk of developing NCS, compared with a mixture of pasture turnout and stall confinement. Horses were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of clinical signs of the syndrome during the warm months of the year.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The risk factors for NCS identified in this study may support chronic environmental exposure to an irritant or infectious agent as the cause of NCS. Information gained from this study should be useful for investigating the cause of NCS.
Objective—To estimate spatial risks associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) during 2001 among horses in a specific study population and partition the herd effects into those attributable to herd location and those that were spatially random and likely attributable to herd management.
Animals—Pregnant broodmares from 62 farms in 7 counties in central Kentucky.
Procedure—Veterinarians provided the 2001 abortion incidence proportions for each farm included in the study. Farms were georeferenced and data were analyzed by use of a fully Bayesian risk-mapping technique.
Results—Large farm-to-farm variation in MRLS incidence proportions was identified. The farm-to-farm variation was largely attributed to spatial location rather than to spatially random herd effects
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that there are considerable data to support an ecologic cause and potential ecologic risk factors for MRLS. Veterinary practitioners with more detailed knowledge of the ecology in the 7 counties in Kentucky that were investigated may provide additional data that would assist in the deduction of the causal factor of MRLS via informal geographic information systems analyses and suggest factors for inclusion in further investigations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:17–20)
Objective—To determine signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic abnormalities, outcome, and subsequent fertility of mares with periparturient hemorrhage (PPH) and identify factors associated with outcome (ie, survival vs death).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on age, breed, initial complaint, physical examination and clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatment, outcome, and subsequent fertility.
Results—Median age was 14.0 years (range, 5 to 24 years), and median number of foals produced prior to the diagnosis of PPH was 8 (range, 1 to 16). Ten (14%) mares had prepartum hemorrhage and 63 (86%) had postpartum hemorrhage. Treatment was aimed at restoring cardiovascular volume, enhancing coagulation, controlling pain, and reducing the effects of endotoxemia. Sixty-one (84%) mares survived and 12 (16%) died or were euthanized. Common complications included fever, leukopenia, retained fetal membranes, increased digital pulses, thrombophlebitis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Of the 53 surviving mares for which subsequent breeding information was available, 26 (49%) produced 1 or more foals after recovering from PPH.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that PPH can develop in mares of any age and parity. Treatment was associated with a good prognosis for survival and a reasonable prognosis for future fertility.