Objective—To determine the efficacy of a modified-live virus vaccine containing bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), parainfluenza virus 3, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 to induce neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity in naïve cattle and protect against BHV-1 challenge.
Procedures—8 calves were mock-vaccinated with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control calves), and 9 calves were vaccinated at 15 to 16 weeks of age. All calves were challenged with BHV-1 25 weeks after vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responsiveness were tested on the day of vaccination and periodically after vaccination and BHV-1 challenge. Specific T-cell responses were evaluated by comparing CD25 upregulation and intracellular interferon-γ expression by 5-color flow cytometry. Titration of BHV-1 in nasal secretions was performed daily after challenge.
Results—Vaccinated calves seroconverted by week 4 after vaccination. Antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, by CD25 expression index, were significantly higher in vaccinated calves than control calves. Compared with control calves, antigen-specific interferon-γ expression was significantly higher in calves during weeks 4 to 8 after vaccination, declining by week 24. After BHV-1 challenge, both neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses of vaccinated calves had anamnestic responses to BHV-1. Vaccinated calves shed virus in nasal secretions at significantly lower titers for a shorter period and had significantly lower rectal temperatures than control calves.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of vaccine effectively induced humoral and cellular immune responses against BHV-1, BRSV, and BVDV types 1 and 2 and protected calves after BHV-1 challenge for 6 months after vaccination.
Objective—To determine whether passively acquired
antibodies prevent development of a protective
immune response to live virus in calves.
Procedure—Calves were caught immediately after
birth and tested free of bovine viral diarrhea virus
(BVDV) and serum antibodies against BVDV. Within 48
hours, 12 calves were fed colostrum that contained
antibodies against BVDV and 6 calves received BVDV
antibody free milk replacer. Three milk replacer fed
and 6 colostrum fed calves were exposed to virulent
BVDV2-1373 at 2 to 5 weeks of life when passively
acquired serum antibody titers were high. After
serum antibody titers against BVDV had decayed to
undetectable concentrations (at 7 to 9 months of
age), the 3 remaining milk replacer fed calves, 6
colostrum fed calves previously exposed to BVDV2-1373, and 6 colostrum fed calves that had not been
exposed to the virus were inoculated with BVDV2-1373.
Results—Passively acquired antibodies prevented
clinical disease in inoculated colostrum fed calves at 2
to 5 weeks of life. Serum antibody titers did not
increase in these calves following virus inoculation,
and serum antibody titers decayed at the same rate
as in noninoculated colostrum fed calves. Inoculated
colostrum fed calves were still protected from clinical
disease after serum antibody titers had decayed to
nondetectable concentrations. Same age colostrum
fed calves that had not been previously exposed to
the virus were not protected.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A protective
immune response was mounted in calves with passive
immunity, but was not reflected by serum antibodies
titers. This finding has implications for evaluating
vaccine efficacy and immune status. (Am J Vet
Objective—To monitor by use of 5-color flow cytometry the antigen-specific responses of subsets of peripheral T cells in cattle inoculated with a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine and to compare results with those for 2 established cell-mediated immunity assays.
Animals—45 female Holstein cattle with negative results for MAP in skin tests conducted at time of inoculation with MAP.
Procedures—Cattle were allocated to 4 groups. Cattle of group 1 (n = 12) were 0 to 3 months old and inoculated with a killed MAP vaccine. The 10 cattle of group 2 were the same age as those in group 1 but were not inoculated with MAP vaccine. The 11 cattle of group 3 were 9 to 12 months old and inoculated with killed MAP vaccine. The 12 cattle of group 4 were the same age as those in group 3 but were not inoculated with MAP vaccine.
Results—Flow cytometry identified T-cell subsets that responded specifically to the recall antigen. Results of assays for CD25 expression and wholeblood interferon-γ had the strongest correlation with results for skin tests as well as results with each other. Intracellular expression of interferon-γ was not correlated as well with results for the other tests.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flow cytometry can be useful for characterizing the immune response after administration of MAP vaccine and should be evaluated with regard to its sensitivity and specificity when used in detecting cattle naturally infected with MAP.