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  • Author or Editor: James A. Orsini x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 in naturally occurring squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and the analogous normal tissues in horses.

Sample Population—Tissue samples collected from 3 conjunctival, 2 vulvar, 4 preputial, and 5 penile SCCs during surgical excision in 14 horses and from corresponding body regions (conjunctiva [n = 5 horses], vulva [2], prepuce [3], and penis [3]) in 5 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to neoplasia.

Procedures—Tissue samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until analysis. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues, and western blot analyses were performed. Nonneoplastic and abnormal tissues from each body region were run on the same blot, and blots were run in triplicate. Molecular-weight markers and COX-1 and 2 ovine standards (positive control samples) were run concurrently on the gels; negative control samples were not used.

Results—All tissues, including the nonneoplastic and SCC tissues, expressed both COX-1 and -2 proteins.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the expression of COX proteins in both nonneoplastic and SCC-affected tissues in horses is markedly different from that in other species. The reason for the potential benefit of COX-2 inhibitors in horses and other species is unknown. Further research needs to be performed to evaluate the efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors as cancer treatments in horses. Investigation of the mechanisms of tumor development in horses should be performed to increase understanding of this disease and ascertain how the mechanisms differ from those in other animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To generate data on the effects of firocoxib administration to horses with osteoarthritis.

Animals—Client-owned horses with signs of lameness and joint pain associated with osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Firocoxib was administered as an oral paste (0.1 mg/kg, q 24 h) for 14 days. Assessments were performed on day 0 (baseline) and days 7 and 14.

Results—390 of 429 horses from 80 sites in 25 states met the criteria for analysis. Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred were the 2 most commonly represented breeds, comprising half of the study population. Signs of musculoskeletal pain or lameness attributed to osteoarthritis were diagnosed in a single joint in 197 (197/390 [50.5%]) horses and in multiple joints in 193 (193/390 [49.5%]) horses. In those with involvement of a single joint, the tarsus was the most frequently affected joint (79/197 [40.1 %]). Among the 390 horses with complete lameness data, improvement was reported in approximately 80% by day 14. Investigators rated 307 (78.7%) horses as improved, whereas owners or handlers rated 316 (81.0%) horses as improved at the termination of the study. Horses treated with firocoxib paste had significant improvement in lameness scores from baseline values. Improvement was most rapid within the first 7 days after starting treatment and continued, albeit at a slower rate, through treatment day 14.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Firocoxib significantly improved lameness scores throughout the 14-day period with few adverse effects. Firocoxib can be a safe cyclooxygenase-2–specific NSAID for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain and lameness associated with osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for development of acute laminitis in horses during hospitalization for illness or injury.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—73 horses that developed laminitis (case horses) and 146 horses that did not develop laminitis (control horses) during hospitalization.

Procedures—Case and control horses were matched in a 2:1 ratio by the date on which each horse was evaluated. Potential risk factors investigated included age, breed, and sex; highest and lowest values recorded during hospitalization for fibrinogen concentration, WBC count, PCV, and total solids concentration; and comorbid disease states, including pneumonia, endotoxemia, diarrhea, medically treated colic, surgically treated colic, pituitary adenoma, retained placenta or metritis, forelimb lameness, hind limb lameness, acute renal failure, and vascular abnormalities. A univariate screening of all potential risk factors was performed to determine which variables should be selected for further analysis. All factors found to be associated with development of laminitis were included in a multivariate conditional logistic regression model.

Results—Development of laminitis was marginally associated with lowest and highest fibrinogen concentrations, highest PCV, and lowest total solids concentration and significantly associated with pneumonia, endotoxemia, diarrhea, abdominal surgery for colic, and vascular abnormalities. In the multivariate analysis, only endotoxemia was significantly associated with laminitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endotoxemia is an important risk factor for development of acute laminitis in horses during hospitalization for medical or surgical conditions. Early recognition of endotoxemia, or the potential for it to develop in certain disease states, and initiation of treatment directed at endotoxemia or its consequences may help prevent laminitis in horses during hospitalization.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine associations between age, sex, or medical treatment and prevalence and severity of gastric ulceration in Standardbred racehorses in training.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—224 Standardbred racehorses in training.

Procedure—Gastroscopy was performed on each horse, and mucosal ulceration was graded from 0 (normal mucosa, no lesions) to 3 (extensive, often coalescing, lesions with areas of deep ulceration). Associations between age, sex, or treatment and prevalence and severity of ulcers were evaluated.

Results—Prevalence of gastric ulceration was 87%. Although there was little association between age and prevalence of ulcers, there was an association between age and severity of ulcers. Most 2-year-old horses (57.7%) had an ulcer score of 0 or 1. In all other age groups, most (58% to 82.61%) of horses had an ulcer score of 2 or 3. Although overall prevalence of ulceration was comparable among sex groups, the relative risk for gastric ulceration increased with age in castrated males, whereas it decreased in females and sexually intact males.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastric ulceration is common in Standardbred horses in race training. Severity is higher in horses ≥ 3 years of age than in 2-year-old horses. Relative risk for ulceration increases with age in castrated males. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1156–1159)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the odds of moderate or severe gastric ulceration in racehorses treated with various antiulcer medications.

Design—Unmatched case-control study.

Animals—798 horses in active race training (252 Thoroughbreds and 546 Standardbreds). Only horses that had been receiving a single antiulcer medication or no antiulcer medication for at least 2 weeks prior to examination were included.

Procedure—Gastroscopy was performed on each horse by a single individual who was not aware of the horses' antiulcer treatments, and severity of gastric ulceration was scored. Signalment and medication history were recorded. Logistic regression was used to determine whether identification of moderate or severe ulceration was associated with treatment, age, breed, or sex. Treatments were grouped as no treatment, buffer, sucralfate, histamine type 2 receptor antagonist, compounded omeprazole, proprietary omeprazole at a low dosage, and proprietary omeprazole at a high dosage.

Results—Only proprietary omeprazole was associated with significantly lower odds of moderate or severe ulceration, compared with no treatment. Risks of moderate or severe gastric ulceration in horses receiving a buffer, sucralfate, a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist, or compounded omeprazole were not significantly different from risks in horses receiving no antiulcer medication.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the proprietary formulation of omeprazole was associated with a significantly lower risk of moderate or severe gastric ulceration, compared with no treatment, in racehorses in active race training, whereas other antiulcer medications were not. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:336–339)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association