Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: James A. Brown x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To identify courses in which first-year veterinary students struggled academically and to survey veterinarians as to their opinions on existing prerequisite courses and proposed alternatives.

DESIGN Electronic surveys.

SAMPLE Associate deans for academic affairs at colleges of veterinary medicine and practicing veterinarians in North America and the Caribbean.

PROCEDURES Surveys were sent to associate deans of academic affairs seeking information on courses in which first-year veterinary students most commonly struggled academically. The 6 courses most commonly listed as prerequisites for admission to veterinary college were identified, and practitioners were asked to rank the relative importance of those courses for preparing students for veterinary college and to rank the importance of 7 potential alternative courses.

RESULTS Data were obtained from 21 associate deans and 771 practicing veterinarians. First-year veterinary students most commonly struggled academically in anatomy, physiology, and histology courses, but these courses were rarely included as prerequisites for admission. Practicing veterinarians agreed that anatomy and physiology should be considered as possible alternatives to 1 or more current prerequisite courses, such as organic chemistry and physics.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE First-year veterinary students commonly encountered academic difficulties in anatomy, physiology, and histology. Because few surveyed veterinary colleges include these courses as prerequisites for admission, many students were exposed to this material for the first time as veterinary students, potentially adding to their academic difficulties and causing stress and anxiety. To help address this situation, veterinary colleges might consider replacing 1 or more current prerequisite courses (eg, organic chemistry and physics) with anatomy, physiology, and histology.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for rectal tears in horses; assess the effect of initiating cause on tear location, size, and distance from anus; and determine short-term survival rate among horses with various grades of rectal tears.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—99 horses.

Procedures—Medical records for horses with a rectal tear were reviewed, and data including age; sex; breed; cause, location, and size of the tear and its distance from the anus; tear grade; treatment; and outcome (short-term survival [ie, survival to discharge from the hospital] vs nonsurvival) were recorded. Data for age, sex, and breed of horses with rectal tears were compared with data for all horses evaluated at the hospital during the same interval to determine risk factors for rectal tears.

Results—Arabians, American Miniature Horses, mares, and horses > 9 years of age were more likely to develop a rectal tear than other breeds, males, or younger horses. Dystocia had a significant influence on rectal tear size. Location of a rectal tear and its distance from the anus were not associated with cause. Applied treatments for grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal tears were effective, unlike treatments for grade 4 rectal tears. Irrespective of treatment, the overall short-term survival rate among horses with grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 rectal tears was 100%, 100%, 38%, and 2%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate identification of risk factors could help practitioners and owners implement adequate measures to prevent the development of rectal tears in horses.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate spatial risks associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) during 2001 among horses in a specific study population and partition the herd effects into those attributable to herd location and those that were spatially random and likely attributable to herd management.

Animals—Pregnant broodmares from 62 farms in 7 counties in central Kentucky.

Procedure—Veterinarians provided the 2001 abortion incidence proportions for each farm included in the study. Farms were georeferenced and data were analyzed by use of a fully Bayesian risk-mapping technique.

Results—Large farm-to-farm variation in MRLS incidence proportions was identified. The farm-to-farm variation was largely attributed to spatial location rather than to spatially random herd effects

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that there are considerable data to support an ecologic cause and potential ecologic risk factors for MRLS. Veterinary practitioners with more detailed knowledge of the ecology in the 7 counties in Kentucky that were investigated may provide additional data that would assist in the deduction of the causal factor of MRLS via informal geographic information systems analyses and suggest factors for inclusion in further investigations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:17–20)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a single intranasal dose of modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine protects calves from BRSV challenge and characterize cell-mediated immune response in calves following BRSV challenge.

Animals—13 conventionally reared 4- to 6-week-old Holstein calves.

Procedure—Calves received intranasal vaccination with modified live BRSV vaccine (VC-group calves; n = 4) or mock vaccine (MC-group calves; 6) 1 month before BRSV challenge; unvaccinated control-group calves (n = 3) underwent mock challenge. Serum virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were measured on days –30, -14, 0, and 7 relative to BRSV challenge; nasal swab specimens were collected for virus isolation on days 0 to 7. At necropsy examination on day 7, tissue specimens were collected for measurement of BRSV-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production. Tissue distribution of CD3+ T and BLA.36+ B cells was evaluated by use of immunohistochemistry.

Results—The MC-group calves had significantly higher rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, and clinical scores on days 5 to 7 after BRSV challenge than VCgroup calves. No difference was seen between distributions of BRSV in lung tissue of VC- and MC-group calves. Production of BRSV-specific IFN-γ was increased in tissue specimens from VC-group calves, compared with MC- and control-group calves. Virusspecific IFN-γ production was highest in the mediastinal lymph node of VC-group calves. Increased numbers of T cells were found in expanded bronchialassociated lymphoid tissue and airway epithelium of VC-group calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An intranasal dose of modified-live BRSV vaccine can protect calves against virulent BRSV challenge 1 month later. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:363–372)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in intranasally vaccinated calves after bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) challenge.

Animals—Twelve 8- to 12-week-old calves.

Procedures—Calves received modified-live BRSV vaccine (vaccinated) or spent tissue culture medium (mock-vaccinated) intranasally, followed by challenge 30 days later with BRSV, or mock challenge with spent tissue culture medium (mock-challenge controls). Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA was measured in lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells, pharyngeal tonsils, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA was measured in lungs and BAL fluid cells by reverse transcriptase-competitive polymerase chain reaction assay.

Results—Resistance to clinical signs of disease was conferred in vaccinated calves. Expression of TNF-α mRNA in lungs and BAL fluid cells was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than control or vaccinated calves. In the lung, IL-4 mRNA expression was higher in vaccinated calves than control or mock-vaccinated calves. In pharyngeal tonsils, expression of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than control calves. In tracheobronchial lymph nodes, IFN-γ mRNA expression was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than vaccinated calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although vaccinated calves had decreased clinical signs of disease after BRSV challenge, compared with mock-vaccinated calves, this difference was not related to a T helper type 1 bias, as determined by increased expression of interferon-γ mRNA relative to interleukin-4 mRNA in lungs, BAL fluid cells, or tracheobronchial lymph nodes of vaccinated calves. Pulmonary inflammation was decreased in vaccinated calves as determined by decreased expression of TNF-α mRNA. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:725–733)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the results of regulatory screening and confirmation assays with those of highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the detection of ceftiofur metabolites in the tissues of culled dairy cattle.

Animals—17 lactating Holstein dairy cows.

Procedure—Daily IM injections of ceftiofur sodium were administered at a dose of 2.2 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg (n = 6) or 1.0 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg (10) for 5 days. Following withdrawal times of 12 hours (high-dose ceftiofur) and either 5 or 10 days (low-dose ceftiofur), cows were slaughtered and liver, kidney, and diaphragmatic muscle specimens were harvested and analyzed by HPLC and standard regulatory methods that included the following assays: the swab test on premises, the fast antimicrobial screen test, the calf antibiotic and sulfa test, and the 7-plate bioassay confirmation test.

Results—In all tissue specimens, residues of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur-related metabolites, as measured by HPLC, were less than regulatory tolerance, as defined by the FDA. False-positive screening assay results were more likely for tissue specimens that had been frozen for shipment to a federal laboratory, compared with fresh tissue specimens that were assayed at the slaughter establishment (23% vs 3% false-positive results, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The observation that fresh tissues had negative results on screening assays, whereas subsets of the same tissue specimens had false-positive results on screening assays following freezing, suggests that freezing and thawing interferes with microbial inhibition-based regulatory screening assays. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1730–1733)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection among Thoroughbreds residing on a farm on which the virus was known to be endemic.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—10 nonpregnant mares, 8 stallions, 16 weanlings, 11 racehorses, and 30 pregnant mares and their foals born during the 2006 foaling season.

Procedures—Blood and nasopharygeal swab samples were collected every 3 to 5 weeks for 9 months, and placenta and colostrum samples were collected at foaling. All samples were submitted for testing for EHV-1 DNA with a PCR assay. A type-specific EHV-1 ELISA was used to determine antibody titers in mares and foals at birth, 12 to 24 hours after birth, and every 3 to 5 weeks thereafter.

Results—Results of the PCR assay were positive for only 4 of the 1,330 samples collected (590 blood samples, 590 nasopharyngeal swab samples, 30 placentas, and 30 colostrum samples), with EHV-1 DNA detected in nasal secretions from 3 horses (pregnant mare, stallion, and racehorse) and in the placenta from 1 mare. Seroconversion was detected in 3 of 27 foals during the first month of life.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was a low prevalence of EHV-1 infection among this population of Thoroughbreds even though the virus was known to be endemic on the farm and that pregnant mares could become infected without aborting. Analysis of nasopharyngeal swab samples appeared to be more sensitive than analysis of blood samples for detection of EHV-1 DNA.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the safety and short-term efficacy of intrabursal administration of botulinum toxin type B (BTXB) to alleviate lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the podotrochlear apparatus (PA).

Animals—10 Quarter Horses with degenerative injury to the PA.

Procedures—Degenerative injury to the PA was confirmed with diagnostic analgesia and imaging. Then, BTXB (3.8 to 4.5 U/kg) was injected into the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa of each horse. Three horses were used in a safety evaluation. Subsequently, video recordings of lameness evaluations were obtained for 7 client-owned horses 5 days before (baseline) and 7 and 14 days after BTXB treatment and used to determine the effect of BTXB injection on lameness; 1 horse was removed from the study 8 days after BTXB treatment. Three investigators who were unaware of the treated forelimbs or time points separately reviewed the recordings and graded the lameness of both forelimbs of the horses.

Results—Improvement in lameness of the treated forelimbs was detected at 1 or both time points after BTXB administration in all horses. However, all horses had some degree of lameness at the end of the study. Two horses developed transient increases in lameness 48 to 72 hours after treatment; lameness resolved uneventfully.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intrabursal injection of BTXB temporarily alleviated chronic lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the PA, without causing serious short-term adverse effects. Further investigation into the potential use of BTXB in horses affected by degenerative injury to the PA is warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to characterize renal transcriptional activities of genes associated with proinflammatory and profibrotic pathways in ischemia-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats.

SAMPLES

Banked renal tissues from 6 cats with experimentally induced CKD (renal ischemia [RI] group) and 9 healthy cats (control group).

PROCEDURES

Transcriptome analysis with RNAseq, followed by gene ontology and cluster analyses, were performed on banked tissue samples of the right kidneys (control kidneys) from cats in the control group and of both kidneys from cats in the RI group, in which unilateral (right) RI had been induced 6 months before the cats were euthanized and the ischemic kidneys (IKs) and contralateral nonischemic kidneys (CNIKs) were harvested. Results for the IKs, CNIKs, and control kidneys were compared to identify potential differentially expressed genes and overrepresented proinflammatory and profibrotic pathways.

RESULTS

Genes from the gene ontology pathways of collagen binding (eg, transforming growth factor-β1), metalloendopeptidase activity (eg, metalloproteinase [MMP]-7, MMP-9, MMP-11, MMP-13, MMP-16, MMP-23B, and MMP-28), chemokine activity, and T-cell migration were overrepresented as upregulated in tissue samples of the IKs versus control kidneys. Genes associated with the extracellular matrix (eg, TIMP-1, fibulin-1, secreted phosphoprotein-1, matrix Gla protein, and connective tissue growth factor) were upregulated in tissue samples from both the IKs and CNIKs, compared with tissues from the control kidneys.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Unilateral ischemic injury differentially altered gene expression in both kidneys, compared with control kidneys. Fibulin-1, secreted phosphoprotein-1, and matrix Gla protein may be candidate biomarkers of active kidney injury in cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research