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  • Author or Editor: Jaime Martorell x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old 2.23-kg (4.91-lb) spayed female Lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of a history of lethargy, polyuria, and polydipsia of 1 month's duration. The referring veterinarian made a presumptive diagnosis of hypercalcemia of unknown etiology on the basis of a plasma total calcium concentration of 14.0 mg/dL.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings were unremarkable. Hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis revealed nonregenerative, normocytic, normochromic anemia (PCV, 28%) with heteropenia (23%; 1,334 heterophils/mL) and a total plasma calcium concentration of 16 mg/dL. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examination revealed radiodense and hyperechoic structures in both renal pelves and right unilateral nephrolithiasis.

Treatment and Outcome—Nephrotomy was performed via laparotomy with a right lateral approach. A nephrolith composed of calcium carbonate and carbonate apatite was removed from the right renal pelvis. The rabbit's plasma tested positive for antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi by means of an indirect immunofluorescence assay, and fenbendazole (20 mg/kg [9.1 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) was administered for 28 days. Although plasma calcium concentration was not substantially decreased after treatment (values were 14.1 and 15.1 mg/dL 1 week and 3 months after surgery, respectively), the patient did not have clinical signs of hypercalcemia and died of unrelated causes approximately 1 year after surgery.

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a nephrotomy performed in a rabbit via a lateral abdominal approach. This approach allowed easy location of the kidney and also reduced manipulation, thus decreasing the risk of damaging the abdominal viscera and potentially decreasing postoperative pain.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases.

ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases.

RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research