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  • Author or Editor: Jagannatha Mysore x
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Reduced prevalence of diarrhea and mortality has been reported after dietary supplementation with zinc compounds in swine with naturally acquired colibacillosis and those challenge-exposed with Serpulina hyodysenteriae; however, the usefulness of this approach for control of enteric diseases of swine remains to be determined. To examine the effect of dietary zinc-containing compounds on the colonization and development of cecal lesions associated with S hyodysenteriae infection, a defined diet alone or with added ZnO, ZnSO4, or Zn-methionine complex to a final concentration of approximately 6,000 mg of Zn2+/kg of complete feed was fed ad libitum to 156 female mice (strain C3H/HeN) for 10 days prior to oral inoculation either with S hyodysenteriae or sterile trypticase soy broth. Rations were continued for 42 days, while at weekly intervals, 3 mice/group were necropsied for determination of body weight, cecal weight, liver zinc concentration, presence of S hyodysenteriae in the cecum, and gross and histologic assessments of cecal lesions. From postinoculation day 0 to 42, the liver zinc concentration of mice fed the zinc-supplemented diets was approximately twice that of mice fed the basal diet, irrespective of the source of zinc. From postinoculation day 7 through 42, the overall recovery rate of S hyodysenteriae in infected mice fed the basal diet was 77.8%. In contrast, recovery rates of S hyodysenteriae from S hyodysenteriae-inoculated mice fed the zinc-supplemented diets were 0% for Zn-methionine and ZnO and 16.7% for ZnSO4. Mice fed the basal diet had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain than mice fed the zinc-supplemented diets. However, the severity of cecal lesions, as determined by histologic examination and quantitative determination of longitudinal crypt length of the cecum was significantly (P < 0.05) less in mice fed the zinc-supplemented diets than in mice fed the basal diet. Data from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with 6,000 mg of zinc/kg of feed significantly reduced the recovery rate of S hyodysenteriae and provided partial protection against development of cecal lesions in mice inoculated with S hyodysenteriae. However, at this concentration, zinc had a deleterious effect on growth of the mice.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate hoof size, shape, and balance as risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMI), including suspensory apparatus failure (SAF) and cannon bone condylar fracture (CDY) in Thoroughbred racehorses.


95 Thoroughbred racehorses that died between 1994 and 1996.


38 quantitative measures of hoof size, shape, and balance were obtained from orthogonal digital images of the hoof and were compared between case horses with forelimb CMI (70), SAF (43), and CDY (10) injuries and control horses whose death was unrelated to the musculoskeletal system (non-CMI, 25). Comparison of group means between cases and controls was done using ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios.


Odds of CMI were 0.62 times lower for a 5- mm increase in ground surface width difference and 0.49 times lower for a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of SAF were 6.75 times greater with a 10° increase in toe-heel angle difference and 0.58 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of CDY were 0.26 times lower with a 3° increase in toe angle, 0.15 times lower with a 5- mm increase in lateral ground surface width, and 0.35 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference.

Clinical Relevance

Decreasing the difference between toe and heel angles should decrease risk of SAF for Thoroughbred racehorses and should be considered in addition to increasing toe angle alone to help prevent catastrophic injury. Trimming the hoof to perfect mediolateral symmetry may not be a sound approach to avoiding injury. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59: 1545-1552)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research