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  • Author or Editor: Jacquie S. Rand x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—10 dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Paired 12-hour serial blood glucose concentration curves performed during 2 consecutive days were obtained on 3 occasions from each dog. Dogs received the same dose of insulin and meal every 12 hours on both days. For each pair of curves, comparison was made between the results of days 1 and 2.

Results—Mean absolute difference (without regard to sign) between days 1 and 2 for each parameter was significantly > 0, disproving the hypothesis that there is minimal day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves when insulin dose and meals are kept constant. Coefficient of variation of the absolute difference between days 1 and 2 for each parameter ranged from 68 to 103%. Evaluation of the paired curves led to an opposite recommendation for adjustment of the insulin dose on day 2, compared with day 1, on 27% of occasions. Disparity between dosage recommendations was more pronounced when glucose concentration nadir was < 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L) on 1 or both days. In this subset of 20 paired curves, an opposite recommendation for dosage adjustment was made on 40% of occasions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—There is large day-to-day variation in parameters of serial blood glucose concentration curves in diabetic dogs. Day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves has important clinical implications, particularly in dogs with good glycemic control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:317–321)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare early socialization practices between litters of breeders registered with the Canine Control Council (CCC) and litters of nonregistered breeders advertising puppies for sale in a local newspaper.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—80 litters of purebred and mixed-breed dogs from registered (n = 40) and non-registered (40) breeders.

Procedures—Registered breeders were randomly selected from the CCC website, and nonregistered breeders were randomly selected from a weekly advertising newspaper. The litter sold most recently by each breeder was then enrolled in the study. Information pertaining to socialization practices for each litter was obtained through a questionnaire administered over the telephone.

Results—Registered breeders generally had more breeding bitches and had more litters than did nonregistered breeders. Litters of registered breeders were more likely to have been socialized with adult dogs, people of different appearances, and various environmental stimuli, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. Litters from registered breeders were also much less likely to have been the result of an unplanned pregnancy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among those breeders represented, litters of registered breeders received more socialization experience, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. People purchasing puppies from nonregistered breeders should focus on socializing their puppies between the time of purchase and 14 weeks of age. Additional research is required to determine whether puppies from nonregistered breeders are at increased risk of behavioral problems and are therefore more likely to be relinquished to animal shelters or euthanized, relative to puppies from registered breeders.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare beta-cell sensitivity to glucose, first-phase insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance between dogs with naturally occurring obesity of > 2 years' duration and lean dogs.

Animals—17 client-owned obese or lean dogs.

Procedures—Frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests were performed with minimal model analysis on 6 obese dogs and matched controls. Glucagon stimulation tests were performed on 5 obese dogs and matched controls.

Results—Obese dogs were half as sensitive to the effects of insulin as lean dogs. Plasma glucose concentrations after food withholding did not differ significantly between groups; plasma insulin concentrations were 3 to 4 times as great in obese as in lean dogs. Obese dogs had plasma insulin concentrations twice those of lean dogs after administration of glucose and 4 times as great after administration of glucagon. First-phase insulin secretion was greater in obese dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Obese dogs compensated for obesity-induced insulin resistance by secreting more insulin. First-phase insulin secretion and beta-cell glucose sensitivity were not lost despite years of obesity-induced insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. These findings help explain why dogs, unlike cats and humans, have not been documented to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a standardized meal challenge test by assessing associations between food-withheld preprandial (ie, fasting) and postprandial triglyceride concentrations, determining the most appropriate sampling time to detect the peak concentration (highest postprandial concentration), and estimating reference intervals for fasting and postprandial concentrations in healthy dogs.

Animals—12 lean healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were fed a dry commercially available diet (fat, 31% metabolizable energy) for 3 weeks. After food was withheld for 23 to 24 hours, plasma triglyceride concentrations were measured 1 and 0.083 hours before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 hours after feeding of a standardized challenge meal (median amount eaten, 63 kcal/kg [127 kcal/kg0.75]). Correlation and agreement between concentrations at peak and other time points were assessed by use of correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Reference intervals were calculated by use of a robust method.

Results—Fasting and peak triglyceride concentrations were not closely associated. The highest concentration among samples obtained 2, 5, and 6 hours after meal consumption had closest agreement with peak concentration. In 5 of 12 dogs, concentrations 12 hours after eating were still significantly above baseline concentration (mean of each dog's fasting concentrations).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fasting triglyceride concentration could not be used to accurately predict peak concentration. When estimating peak concentration, multiple samples should be collected 2, 5, and 6 hours after consumption of a standardized meal. Food may need to be withheld for > 12 hours when assessing fasting concentrations in healthy dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research