OBJECTIVE To determine the anatomic location and clinical signs of thymoma in goats and long-term outcomes in a subset of goats treated by tumor excision.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 13 goats with a histologic diagnosis of thymoma at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals between 1990 and 2014.
PROCEDURES Medical records of goats with thymoma were reviewed and data were evaluated regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic imaging results, thymoma size, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up information was obtained via contact with the owners and review of medical records.
RESULTS 8 goats had a mediastinal mass, 4 had a palpable ventral cervical mass, and 1 had both types of masses. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 9.5 years (range, 3 to 12 years). Goats with a mediastinal mass had respiratory distress or marked tachypnea. Six goats were treated surgically, including all 5 with a ventral cervical mass. All 5 goats with a ventral cervical mass survived with no tumor recurrence for ≥ 1 year after excision. Only 2 goats with a mediastinal mass survived to hospital discharge.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the prognosis for goats following excision of ventral cervical thymomas was favorable, whereas goats with mediastinal thymomas appeared more likely to have severe clinical signs and a guarded prognosis.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II expression in equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) changes with exposure to a proinflammatory environment reflective of an inflamed joint.
SAMPLE Cryopreserved bone marrow-derived MSCs from 12 horses and cartilage and synovium samples from 1 horse euthanized for reasons other than lameness.
PROCEDURES In part 1 of a 3-part study, the suitability of a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for measurement of MHC class II expression in MSCs following stimulation with interferon (IFN)-γ was assessed. In part 2, synoviocyte-cartilage cocultures were or were not stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL) to generate conditioned media that did and did not (control) mimic an inflamed joint environment. In part 3, a qRT-PCR assay was used to measure MSC MHC class II expression after 96 hours of incubation with 1 of 6 treatments (control-conditioned medium, IL-1β-conditioned medium, and MSC medium alone [untreated control] or with IL-1β [10 ng/mL], tumor necrosis factor-α [10 ng/mL], or IFN-γ [100 ng/mL]).
RESULTS The qRT-PCR assay accurately measured MHC class II expression. Compared with MHC class II expression for MSCs exposed to the untreated control medium, that for MSCs exposed to IL-1β was decreased, whereas that for MSCs exposed to IFN-γ was increased. Neither the control-conditioned nor tumor necrosis factor-α medium altered MHC class II expression.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MSC exposure to proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β decreased MHC class II expression and antigenicity. Treatment of inflamed joints with allogeneic MSCs might not be contraindicated, but further investigation is warranted.