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Objective—To determine the incidence of pathological fractures associated with appendicular primary bone tumors in dogs managed medically and to identify potential risk factors at the time of radiographic diagnosis that may be associated with eventual pathological fracture.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—84 dogs with primary long bone neoplasia treated medically.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs with a diagnosis of primary long bone neoplasia based on results of radiography that was confirmed subsequently at necropsy were reviewed. Owners elected medical treatment at a pain clinic. Data regarding clinical signs, diagnostic testing, pathological findings, and outcome were evaluated.

Results—84 dogs met study inclusion criteria with 85 limbs affected. Osteosarcoma was the most common tumor and was identified in 78 of 85 (91.8%) limbs. The median time from diagnosis to euthanasia was 111 days (range, 28 to 447 days). Pathological fractures were identified in 33 of 85 limbs (38%), with the femur most commonly affected, (8/14 [57.1%]), followed by the tibia (9/17 [52.9%]), humerus (10/27 [37%]), radius (5/25 [20%]), and ulna (1/2 [50%]). Logistic regression analysis indicated that tumors arising from long bones other than the radius had odds of eventual fracture 5.05 as great as the odds for tumors of the radius, and lytic tumors had odds of eventual fracture 3.22 as great as the odds for tumors that appeared blastic or mixed lytic-blastic.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that radial primary bone tumors were less likely and lytic tumors were more likely to fracture. The overall incidence of pathological fractures secondary to appendicular primary bone neoplasia in this study with patients treated by means of intensive management for bone pain was higher than previously reported.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the percentage of dogs surviving to hospital discharge and identify factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge among dogs undergoing surgery because of primary splenic torsion (PST).


Retrospective case series.


102 client-owned dogs.


Medical records of dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of PST that underwent surgery between August 1992 and May 2014 were reviewed. History, signalment, results of physical examination and preoperative bloodwork, method of splenectomy, concurrent surgical procedures, perioperative complications, duration of hospital stay, splenic histopathologic findings, and details of follow-up were recorded. Best-fit multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify perioperative factors associated with survival to hospital discharge.


93 of the 102 (91.2%) dogs survived to hospital discharge. German Shepherd Dogs (24/102 [23.5%]), Great Danes (15/102 [14.7%]), and English Bulldogs (12/102 [11.8%]) accounted for 50% of cases. Risk factors significantly associated with death prior to hospital discharge included septic peritonitis at initial examination (OR, 32.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 502.0), intraoperative hemorrhage (OR, 22.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 289.8), and postoperative development of respiratory distress (OR, 35.7; 95% CI, 2.7 to 466.0). Histopathologic evidence of splenic neoplasia was not found in any case.


Results suggested that the prognosis for dogs undergoing splenectomy because of PST was favorable. Several risk factors for death prior to discharge were identified, including preexisting septic peritonitis, intraoperative hemorrhage, and postoperative development of respiratory distress.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association