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  • Author or Editor: Jacob M. Shivley x
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Objective—To determine the prevalence of individual anatomic components of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS), including everted tonsils, and analyze the frequency with which each component occurs with 1 or more other components of BAOS in brachycephalic dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—90 dogs with BAOS.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs at time of admission, historical and physical examination findings, BAOS components found on laryngoscopic examination of the pharynx and larynx, surgical procedures performed, and perioperative complications.

Results—English Bulldogs (55/90 [61%]), Pugs (19/90 [21%]), and Boston Terriers (8/90 [9%]) were the most common breeds with BAOS. The most common components of BAOS were elongated soft palate (85/90 [94%]), stenotic nares (69/90 [77%]), everted laryngeal saccules (59/90 [66%]), and everted tonsils (50/90 [56%]). Dogs most commonly had 3 or 4 components of BAOS, with the most common combination being stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, everted laryngeal saccules, and everted tonsils. Dogs with stenotic nares were significantly more likely to have everted laryngeal saccules (50/69 [72%]), and dogs with everted laryngeal saccules were significantly more likely to have everted tonsils (39/59 [66%]). Postoperative surgical complications occurred in 12% (10/83) of dogs that received corrective surgery. No specific BAOS component made dogs more likely to have complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence of components of BAOS in brachycephalic dogs of this study differed from that reported previously, especially for everted tonsils. Thorough examination of the pharynx and larynx is necessary for detection of BAOS components.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



Although research on animal hoarding, both in urban and rural settings, is growing, a gap remains in the literature about community patterns of animal ownership. Our objective was to determine patterns of companion animal ownership in a rural setting and the association between number of animals in a household and indicators of animal health.


Retrospective review of veterinary medical records from 2009 to 2019 from a university-based community clinic in Mississippi.


Review of all owners who reported having animals from a household with 8 or more other animals on average, excluding animals from shelters, rescues, or veterinary practices. Across the study period, 28,446 unique encounters occurred among 8,331 unique animals and 6,440 unique owners. Indicators of care for canine and feline animals were taken from values indicated on the physical examination.


Animals were largely from single-animal households (46.9%) or households with 2 to 3 animals (35.9%). However, 2.1% of all animal cases reviewed lived in a household reported to have 8 or more animals, and 2.4% of canines and 4.3% of felines lived in a household with 8 or more animals. Increased animal ownership in the home correlated with worse health outcomes based on the health-care indicators investigated in canines and felines.


Veterinarians working in community settings are likely to encounter cases of animal hoarding and should consider collaborating with mental health practitioners if repeated incidences of negative health-care indicators occur for animals from the same household.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association