Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jack C. Rhyan x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To determine epidemiologic factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) in dairy cattle slaughtered in 6 important regions for milk production in Mexico.

Animals—2,500 cattle.

Procedure—Tissue specimens with lesions typical of TB were obtained during routine inspection of carcasses at abbatoirs between July 1996 and January 1997. Infection with Mycobacterium organisms was confirmed by histologic examination and bacteriologic culture. Species identification was made by use of selective growth medium, conventional biochemical tests, and radiometric procedures. Epidemiologic information for affected cattle was obtained by personal interviews with cattle dealers and owners.

Results—400 (16%) of 2,500 cattle carcasses had gross lesions typical of TB. Of the 400 infected cattle, 336 (84%) had lesions in ≥ 1 lymph node. Infection was confirmed in 87% of cattle with gross lesions by histologic examination, in 77% by bacteriologic culture at a laboratory in the United States, and in 59% by bacteriologic culture at a laboratory in Mexico. Most cattle were adult females in fair to good body condition that came from large herds (> 500 cattle) and were not included in the Mexican TB control program.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean prevalence of lesions typical of TB in dairy cattle at 6 locations in Mexico was 16%. Mycobacterium infection was confirmed by various techniques in most lesions. Recognition of typical gross lesions at slaughter may expedite TB control procedures. (Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:86–89)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the feasibility of qualifying individuals or groups of Yellowstone National Park bison as free from brucellosis.

Design—Cohort study.

Sample—Serum, blood, and various samples from live bison and tissues taken at necropsy from 214 bison over 7 years.

Procedures—Blood was collected from bison every 30 to 45 days for serologic tests and microbiological culture of blood for Brucella abortus. Seropositive bison were euthanized until all remaining bison had 2 consecutive negative test results. Half the seronegative bison were randomly euthanized, and tissues were collected for bacteriologic culture. The remaining seronegative bison were bred, and blood was tested at least twice per year. Cow-calf pairs were sampled immediately after calving and 6 months after calving for evidence of B abortus.

Results—Post-enrollment serial testing for B abortus antibodies revealed no bison that seroconverted after 205 days (first cohort) and 180 days (second cohort). During initial serial testing, 85% of bison seroconverted within 120 days after removal from the infected population. Brucella abortus was not cultured from any euthanized seronegative bison (0/88). After parturition, no cows or calves had a positive test result for B abortus antibodies, nor was B abortus cultured from any samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested it is feasible to qualify brucellosis-free bison from an infected herd following quarantine procedures as published in the USDA APHIS brucellosis eradication uniform methods and rules. Latent infection was not detected in this sample of bison when applying the USDA APHIS quarantine protocol.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare sensitivity of a generic trypticase-yeast extract-maltose (TYM) medium versus a commercial nutrient medium in the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in heifers and to assess sensitivity when incubation of samples inoculated into commercial medium pouches is delayed overnight.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

30 virgin beef heifers.

Procedures

20 heifers vaccinated with a trichomonad antigen and 10 unvaccinated control heifers were exposed at synchronized estrus by intravaginal instillation of 106 T foetus organisms. Cervicovaginal mucus samples were collected every other week for 10 weeks from controls and once (10 weeks after exposure) from vaccinated heifers. Samples were inoculated into both media and immediately incubated at 37 C (98.6 F). A duplicate inoculation from controls was made into commercial medium, and the pouch was shipped overnight to a diagnostic laboratory without prior incubation.

Results

For 40 of 50 samples from control heifers, there was agreement on diagnoses between media. There was agreement on a positive diagnosis for 3 of 20 samples from vaccinated heifers and on a negative diagnosis for 15 of these 20 samples. For samples shipped overnight before incubation, there were 10% fewer positive diagnoses, compared with samples incubated immediately in commercial medium and 10% more positive diagnoses, compared with samples immediately incubated in TYM.

Clinical Implications

Use of the commercial medium is a more sensitive indicator of current infection in heifers than use of generic TYM medium. In herds where infection prevalence is high, this method is likely to identify more infected females, an important consideration when control programs include culling of infected cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:519-522)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To examine the temporal development of tuberculous lesions in cattle inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis.

Animals

15 mature crossbred cows obtained from a herd with no history of M bovis infection.

Procedure

Inoculation of cattle was done by intratonsilar instillation of 1.48 × 105 to 5.4 × 107 colony-forming units of M bovis strain 2045T. At 3 to 4 hours, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks after inoculation, tissues were examined for gross and microscopic lesions and processed for isolation of M bovis.

Results

Retropharyngeal lymph nodes from cattle examined 4 weeks after inoculation contained microgranulomas consisting of aggregates of macrophages with few neutrophils. Retropharyngeal lymph nodes from all cattle examined 6 and 8 weeks after inoculation contained multiple, large, coalescing granulomas consisting of central areas of necrosis with mild fibrosis, numerous macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, multinucleated giant cells, and neutrophils. Three of 8 cattle examined 6 or 8 weeks after inoculation had lesions in nonretropharyngeal sites with morphologic characteristics similar to that seen in retropharyngeal lymph node granulomas from cattle examined 4 weeks after inoculation.

Conclusion

Granulomas can develop in draining lymph nodes of cattle in as little as 4 weeks after inoculation via intratonsilar instillation of M bovis. Intralesional morphologic changes between 4 and 6 weeks after inoculation indicate an increase in cellular chemotaxis and differentiation. Dissemination of bacteria to distant sites most likely was by lymphatic and hematogenous routes after establishment of the primary infection in retropharyngeal lymph nodes. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:310–315)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research