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  • Author or Editor: J. W. Knox x
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Four groups of 18 beef calves each were used to evaluate effects of different treatments on parasite control and weight gains. The investigation extended from November 1986 (weaning) to October 1987. Group-1 calves were treated with ivermectin (200 μg/kg of body weight, SC) at approximately 6-week intervals for a total of 8 treatments; group-2 calves were given the same dosage of ivermectin by the same route of administration as group-1 calves in November, March, and July; group-3 calves were given fenbendazole paste (5 mg/kg, po) at the same times as group-2 calves; and group-4 calves served as untreated controls with provision for ivermectin salvage treatment. All groups grazed on individual pairs of larval-contaminated, 1.6-ha pastures. Highest (P < 0.05) initial worm counts in fall tracer calves were found in group 3 (Ostertagia ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei adults) and group 4 (O ostertagi and Haemonchus adults). Fecal egg counts of group-1 calves were low throughout the experiment and pasture larval counts remained negligible after July. Egg counts and larval counts of other groups remained higher into summer. Worm counts, including O ostertagi inhibited early fourth-stage larvae (el 4), were highest (P < 0.05) in groups-3 and -4 spring tracer calves; numbers of O ostertagi el 4 were similarly high in groups 2, 3, and 4; and T axei counts were highest (P < 0.05) in groups-3 and -4 yearlings slaughtered in spring. Liveweights of group-1 calves were greater (P < 0.05) than in other groups from March 2 to October, and by July 2, group-2 calves had a liveweight advantage over group-4 calves. Group- 3 calves had the lowest rate of gain from March to July and mean liveweight of the group was less (P < 0.05) than in all other groups from April to October. Only minimal worm numbers were recovered from groups-1 or -2 calves in October. Large numbers of O ostertagi and T axei were recovered from group-4 calves and O ostertagi from group-3 calves. A few calves in groups 3 and 4, but particularly in group 4, were affected by type-II disease (chronic to acute gastritis caused by maturation and emergence of previously inhibited larvae) from August to October. Final mean liveweights in descending order were 365 kg in group 1, 328 kg in group 2, 316 kg in group and 281 kg in group 3.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Six healthy mature horses were orally administered a single dose of phenobarbital (26 mg/kg of body weight), then multiple doses (13 mg/kg) orally for 42 consecutive days. Seventeen venous blood samples were collected from each horse after the single dose study and again after the last dose on day 42. Plasma phenobarbital concentration was determined by use of a fluorescence assay validated for horses. Additional blood samples (n = 11) were collected on days 8 and 25 to determine peak and trough concentrations, as well as total body clearance. Phenobarbital disposition followed a one-compartment model. Mean kinetic variables after single and repeated orally administered doses (42 days) were: elimination half-life = 24.2 ± 4.7 and 11.2 ± 2.3 hours, volume of distribution = 0.960 ± 0.060 and 0.914 ± 0.119 L/kg, and clearance = 28.2 ± 5.1 and 57.3 ± 9.6 ml/h/kg, respectively. Results indicated that significant (P < 0.05) difference in half-life and oral clearance existed between single and repeated dosing. The significant decrease in half-life after repeated dosing with phenobarbital may be indicative of enzyme induction. Significant difference was not observed between baseline serum enzyme concentration and concentration measured on day 42, except for γ-glutamyltransferase activity, which was significantly increased on day 42 in 3 of the 6 horses. On the basis of increases in oral clearance observed over 42 days, dose adjustments may be required. By days 25 to 42, pharmacokinetic values indicated that dosages of phenobarbital between 25 and 27 mg/kg administered orally every 24 hours may be needed to maintain steady state plasma concentration of phenobarbital at 20 μg/ml of plasma in mature horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research