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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate job satisfaction and engagement among credentialed veterinary technicians (CVTs) employed in the United States.

SAMPLE

873 CVTs who responded to an internet-based survey in 2017.

PROCEDURES

A survey was conducted to collect information on demographics, individual engagement, and job satisfaction among a convenience sample of CVTs in the United States. Only responses from those employed in small animal practice were included. Demographic and job-related factors were evaluated for associations with individual engagement and job satisfaction.

RESULTS

The mean (SD) score for overall individual engagement (7-point Likert scale, with 7 representing strong engagement) was 4.9 (1.0) and for job satisfaction (7 representing extreme satisfaction) was 5.4 (1.5). Factors associated with lower individual engagement and lower job satisfaction included most frequently working overnight shifts and having more veterinarians in the respondent's practice, whereas holding a supervisory role, receiving a higher hourly wage, and having more veterinary technicians in the practice were significantly associated with higher individual engagement and higher job satisfaction, with other variables held constant. Having a veterinary technician specialist designation was not associated with individual engagement or job satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this was the first study to investigate factors associated with individual engagement and job satisfaction among CVTs in the United States. Employers should review these factors and support and enhance those associated with enhanced engagement and increased job satisfaction. Employers should regularly review factors identified as negatively associated with job satisfaction and engagement and do their best to mitigate them.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Productivity and economic effects of pseudorabies were estimated for a mean-size, farrow-tofinish swine enterprise. A Delphi technique was used to elicit productivity effects from an expert panel. Enterprise budgets for pseudorabies-infected and noninfected herds were constructed by use of these productivity estimates, as well as by use of economic data from secondary sources. Data examined to determine effects on productivity included preweaning, nursery, and growing/ finishing pig mortality; breeding hog mortality; feed conversion; labor; and veterinary services and medication expenses. Results indicated that profitability was lowered in infected herds by approximately $6/cwt of swine produced.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Epidemiologic modeling of the likely herd-to-herd transmission of pseudorabies virus (prv) was developed to assess the progress and potential for the prv-eradication program in the United States. The herd-to-herd transmission of prv over a 20-year period (1993 to 2012) in the United States was simulated under various scenarios, which included variable program-funding levels and variable prevalences. A transition model (Markov process model) was used to predict yearly changes in herd prevalence of prv infection. Five mutually exclusive states of nature for herds were assumed: uninfected and not vaccinated; uninfected and vaccinated; known to be infected and not vaccinated; known to be infected and vaccinated; and infected, but not known to be infected. Three prevalences for states in the United States were assumed: higher prevalence, moderate prevalence, and lower prevalence. Three funding levels were assumed: no eradication program, continued funding at the current level, and increased funding of 25%. Estimates made by an expert panel for determining probabilities in the state-transition matrices were used. A model also was developed, and was considered to be the most optimistic scenario likely under increased funding of 25%. The most optimistic estimates of the probabilities that still lay within the range of estimates made by the expert panel were used for this model. Only the optimistic transmission matrices allowed for total eradication of prv. Using the optimistic matrices, all states in the United States of America had moved into the moderate- or low-level risk status by the year 2000. The longest time taken to achieve eradication was for the state of Iowa, where eradication was not achieved until 2012.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with osteoarthritis (OA) of hip joints of dogs by use of a whole-genome microsatellite scan.

Animals—116 founder, backcross, F1, and F2 dogs from a crossbred pedigree.

Procedures—Necropsy scores and an optimized set of 342 microsatellite markers were used for interval mapping by means of a combined backcross and F2 design module from an online statistical program. Breed and sex were included in the model as fixed effects. Age of dog at necropsy and body weight at 8 months of age were also included in the model as covariates. The chromosomal location at which the highest F score was obtained was considered the best estimate of a QTL position. Chromosome-wide significance thresholds were determined empirically from 10,000 permutations of marker genotypes.

Results—4 chromosomes contained putative QTL for OA of hip joints in dogs at the 5% chromosome-wide significance threshold: chromosomes 5, 18, 23, and 31.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Osteoarthritis of canine hip joints is a complex disease to which many genes and environmental factors contribute. Identification of contributing QTL is a strategy to elucidate the genetic mechanisms that underlie this disease. Refinement of the putative QTL and subsequent candidate gene studies are needed to identify the genes involved in the disease process.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to hip dysplasia in dogs.

Animals—192 Labrador Retrievers.

Procedures—Hip dysplasia was measured by use of the Norberg angle (NA), dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score, and distraction index (DI). Genome-wide screening was conducted by use of 276 unique microsatellites. Linkage analysis was performed with a variance-based linear model. Logarithm of the odds (LOD) scores were reported when values were > 2.0.

ResultsCanis familiaris autosomes (CFAs) 01, 02, 10, 20, 22, and 32 harbored significant QTL at LOD scores > 2.0. Among the 6 QTL, the QTL on CFA02 had not been reported to harbor QTL for hip dysplasia. The highest LOD score of 3.32 on CFA20 contributed to the second principal component of the DLS score and NA of the right hip joint. The QTL that was mapped on CFA01 (LOD score of 3.13 at 55 centimorgans) was located on the same chromosome reported to harbor a QTL for hip dysplasia in Portuguese Water Dogs and German Shepherd Dogs. In this study, CFAs 10, 20, 22, and 32 harbored QTL for hip dysplasia that have been identified in a Labrador Retriever–Greyhound pedigree and in German Shepherd Dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple QTL were clearly involved with hip dysplasia. Identification of these QTL will enable fine-resolution mapping and subsequent assessment of candidate genes within the refined intervals to enable researchers to develop genetic screening tests and preventative and novel therapeutic regimens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research