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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine plasma and milk concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic variables after IV administration of ketoprofen to lactating dairy cows.

Design

Cows received a single IV bolus of ketoprofen (3.31 mg/kg of body weight). Blood and milk were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 40, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 360, and 480 minutes. Ketoprofen concentrations in plasma and milk were determined.

Animals

6 clinically normal lactating Holstein cows.

Procedure

Plasma and milk samples were processed by solvent extraction, and ketoprofen concentrations were determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography with octadecyl silane reverse-phase guard and analytic columns. A computer polyexponential curve-stripping program was used to fit ketoprofen concentration-time data and to calculate pharmacokinetic variables.

Results

The lower limit of detection for ketoprofen in plasma was 18 ng/ml; the lower limit of quantification was 60 ng/ml. The lower limit of detection for ketoprofen in milk was 27 ng/ml; the lower limit of quantification was 90 ng/ml. Plasma ketoprofen concentration-time curves best fit an open two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Harmonic mean apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 0.11 (range, 0.095 to 0.13) L/kg, elimination half-life was 0.49 (range, 0.40 to 0.67) hour, and total clearance was 0.17 (range, 0.14 to 0.19) L/kg/h. Ketoprofen was detected in some milk samples, 10 to 120 minutes after administration, but all concentrations were below the limit of quantification. Adverse effects were not observed in cows given ketoprofen.

Conclusions

The elimination half-life for ketoprofen is short, and low concentrations of ketoprofen can be detected in normal milk, after IV treatment of cattle with ketoprofen. Milk and meat from cattle treated IV with ketoprofen should not be an important drug residue risk if appropriate withholding periods are used. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1031–1033)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

  • Uterine torsion in pregnant mares generally occurs during the later stages of gestation.

  • Uterine torsion causes signs of abdominal pain that may be mistaken for gastrointestinal tract obstruction; however, gastrointestinal tract obstruction, such as small intestinal incarceration or large colon torsion, can occur in conjunction with uterine torsion.

  • Correction of torsion of the uterus may involve a rolling technique, flank laparotomy, or ventral midline celiotomy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether addition of epinephrine to a lidocaine solution would prolong and potentiate the efficacy of a palmar digital nerve block (PDNB) in horses.

ANIMALS 6 adult horses with naturally occurring forefoot lameness.

PROCEDURES Initially, a PDNB with a 2% lidocaine solution was performed on the affected foot of each horse. Three days later, the PDNB was repeated with a 1% lidocaine solution or a 1% lidocaine solution containing epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000). After another 3-day washout period, the PDNB was repeated with the treatment opposite that administered for the second PDNB. Gait was analyzed with a computerized lameness analysis system and heart rate and extent of skin sensation between the heel bulbs of the blocked foot were evaluated at predetermined times for 2 hours after each PDNB.

RESULTS Efficacy and duration of the PDNB did not differ significantly between the 2% and 1% lidocaine treatments. The addition of epinephrine to the 1% lidocaine solution improved the efficacy and prolonged the duration of the PDNB. It also resulted in a positive correlation between skin desensitization and amelioration of lameness. Median heart rate remained unchanged throughout the observation period for all 3 treatments. No adverse effects associated with the PDNBs were observed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Addition of epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000) to a 1% lidocaine solution improved the efficacy and prolonged the duration of a PDNB in horses with naturally occurring lameness and might be clinically useful for lameness evaluations and standing surgery of the forefoot of horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Full-thickness, circular, cutaneous wounds (5 cm in diameter) were created on the distal portion of the forelimbs of 6 horses. One wound on each horse was treated with 6 full-thickness punch grafts that were obtained from the horse's neck with a 6-mm skin biopsy punch and inserted in the graft sites on day 14 after wounding. The wound on the contralateral limb was not grafted. A combination of ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium was applied to the wounds when bandages were changed to control bacterial infection. Areas of each wound were measured on days 1, 7, 9, 11, 13 through 15, 17 through 22, 24, 26, 29, and 32 after wounding. Three distinguishable phases of healing were observed (expansion, contraction, and epithelialization), and the time course of each phase was evaluated, using formulas of first-order processes. Rate constants of each phase were not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by punch grafts.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of a 1% solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) infused into the peritoneal cavity of ewes was evaluated for prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions resulting from surgery of the reproductive tract. Six ewes were assigned to each of 4 groups. Group-1 ewes were controls that underwent ventral midline celiotomy and exploration of the abdominal viscera. Group-2 ewes were treated similarly to group-1 ewes, except that a 1% solution of cmc (14 ml/kg of body weight) was infused into the peritoneal cavity. This group was studied to determine whether cmc would cause changes in the peritoneal cavity. Group-3 comprised ewes representing a uterine trauma model. Ewes underwent abdominal exploration, but in addition had a standard embryo collection technique performed on 1 uterine horn and hysterotomy performed on the opposite uterine horn. Group-4 ewes were treated like group-3 ewes, except that, similar to treatment of group-2 ewes, cmc was infused into the peritoneal cavity. All ewes were euthanatized and necropsied 12 to 14 days after surgery.

Abdominal adhesions were evaluated, and an adhesion severity score was assigned to each ewe on the basis of number and severity of the adhesions. Ewes of all groups had abdominal adhesions. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower adhesion score was observed in ewes given cmc (groups 2 and 4) than in the adhesion model (group 3). Significant difference was not observed in adhesion score when groups 1, 2, or 4 were compared. Though not statistically significant, fewer adhesions were observed in ewes of groups 2 and 4 than in group-1 ewes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research