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Summary

Records of 8 dogs with drug-associated aplastic anemia were reviewed. Drugs suspected as being causative included estradiol cyclopentylpropionate (3 dogs), phenylbutazone (2 dogs), meclofenamic acid (1 dog), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and fenbendazole (1 dog), and quinidine (1 dog). Five of the dogs died or were euthanatized. One dog with estrogen-associated aplasia recovered after prolonged treatment. The dogs with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine and quinidine-associated marrow aplasia recovered promptly after treatment was discontinued.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effect of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, on gastric fluid pH was investigated in 4 ponies. Gastric fluid pH was determined after sc administration of octreotide or physiologic saline solution (control). A baseline sample of fluid was obtained, the agent was given, and 8 additional samples were collected hourly. Administration of octreotide at all dosages tested (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/kg of body weight) increased gastric pH to > 5.0. Baseline values were consistently < 2.7. Administration of octreotide at these same dosages induced gastric pH values > 4.0 for 2.4 ± 1.2, 4.8 ± 0.8, 5.7 ± 1.3, and 5.4 ± 2.6 (mean ± sd) continuous hours, respectively. Treatment at all dosages increased the pH of gastric fluid, compared with control values. The duration of the increase in pH was significantly (P < 0.05) different than that of the control treatment, even for the lowest dosage, 0.1 μg/kg.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To evaluate the role of interleukin (IL)-10 in the inability of monocyte-derived bovine macrophages to kill Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis organisms in vitro.

Sample Population—Monocytes were obtained from healthy adult Holstein dairy cows that had negative results when tested for infection with M avium subsp paratuberculosis.

Procedure—Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with M avium subsp paratuberculosisfor 2, 6, 24, 72, or 96 hours with or without addition of saturating concentrations of a goat anti-human IL-10 that has been documented to neutralize bovine IL-10 activity. Variables assessed included ingestion and killing of M avium subsp paratuberculosis; expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-12, IL-8, major histocompatability (MHC) class II, vacuolar H+ ATPase, and B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2); production of nitric oxide; acidification of phagosomes; and apoptosis of macrophages.

Results—Neutralization of IL-10 enabled macrophages to kill 57% of M avium subsp paratuberculosis organisms within 96 hours. It also resulted in an increase in expression of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-8, MHC class II, and vacuolar H+ ATPase; decrease in expression of BCL-2; increase in acidification of phagosomes; apoptosis of macrophages; and production of nitric oxide.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The capacity of M avium subsp paratuberculosis to induce IL-10 expression may be a major determinant of virulence for this organism. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:721–726)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A flow cytometric platelet immunofluorescence assay (fc-pifa) was compared with a previously developed microscopic platelet immunofluorescence assay (mi-pifa) for detection of circulating platelet antibody. Both assays were performed on serum from 10 healthy dogs with normal platelet count, and on serum from 27 thrombocytopenic dogs—18 had primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (imt), and 9 had imt in addition to other immune-mediated disease (secondary imt). Both assays yielded negative results for all control dogs. The mi-pifa and fc-pifa results were in agreement in 23 dogs with imt (14 positive and 9 negative). There was linear correlation between mi-pifa scores and fc-pifa results (r = 0.873). Positive results were obtained for 55.5% of the dogs with suspected imt, using the mi-pifa, compared with 67%, using the fc-pifa; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Use of fresh or frozen fixed donor platelets as the antigen source yielded similar results in the fc-pifa.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the optimal dosage of clomipramine for the treatment of urine spraying in cats.

Design—Randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial.

Animals—67 neutered cats.

Procedure—Cats with a minimum 1-month history of spraying urine against vertical surfaces at least twice per week were randomly assigned to be treated with a placebo or with clomipramine at a dosage of 0.125 to 0.25 mg/kg (0.057 to 0.11 mg/lb), 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg (0.11 to 0.23 mg/lb), or 0.5 to 1 mg/kg (0.23 to 0.45 mg/lb), PO, every 24 hours for up to 12 weeks. Owners of all cats were given information on behavioral treatment and environmental modification.

Results—Prior to treatment, mean number of urine spraying events ranged from 0.9 to 1.3 urine spraying events/d for the 4 groups, and mean percentage of days with urine spraying events ranged from 62% to 69%. All 3 dosages of clomipramine were associated with significant reductions in frequency of urine spraying. Sedation was the most common adverse effect and was identified in 27 of the 50 cats treated with clomipramine; however, treatment was not discontinued in any cat because of sedation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggest that compared with a placebo, clomipramine significantly reduces the frequency of urine spraying in cats in terms of the number of urine spraying events per day and the number of days with urine spraying events. For cats with urine spraying, the recommended initial dosage of clomipramine is 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:881–887)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association