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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of levetiracetam in a goat with seizures.

ANIMAL

A 5-month-old doeling.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The goat was referred because of progressive anorexia and lethargy over 3 days. Clinical signs consisted of weakness, obtundation, opisthotonos, anisocoria, and cortical blindness. Initial evaluation was most consistent with polioencephalomalacia.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Neurologic improvement occurred within 4 hours of thiamine administration, with appetite returning over 12 hours. On day 3 of hospitalization, the goat suffered acute onset repetitive seizures that were incompletely responsive to standard interventions over 3 hours. Administration of IV levetiracetam (60 mg/kg) produced resolution of seizure activity within 20 minutes. Levetiracetam was continued twice daily IV, then PO after day 6. Plasma concentrations were above or within therapeutic ranges (5 to 45 μg/mL) as previously established for other species, following both IV and PO levetiracetam. Oral administration (60 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) resulted in plasma levetiracetam concentrations of 48.1 μg/mL 2 hours after a dose and 23.4 μg/mL 2 hours prior to the next dose.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Levetiracetam is a newer anticonvulsant commonly used in humans and small animals due to its efficacy, cost, and wide safety margin. Its use has not previously been reported in domestic small ruminants. In this case, levetiracetam showed excellent clinical efficacy in the face of refractory seizures, with no apparent side effects. Plasma concentrations during oral administration were at the high end of the therapeutic range, indicating absorption in a nonmonogastric species. Further studies are warranted to determine optimal dosing in small ruminants.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To assess parasite control and weight gain after administration of an ivermectin sustained-release bolus over 135 days to calves grazing in the midwestern United States.

Design

Replicated pasture study.

Animals

56 Bos taurus calves.

Procedure

Calves were matched for body weight and randomly allocated to remain untreated or to receive an ivermectin sustained-release bolus before turnout on day 0. Calves were grazed by treatment group on 8 pastures (4 replicates). Body weights and fecal egg counts were recorded on days −1 and 28, and then at 28-day intervals until day 168.

Results

Parasitism was not clinically evident prior to or during the study. In treated calves, mean fecal egg counts were at or near 0 at all posttreatment evaluations. Although the mean egg count exceeded 20 ova/g only once in control calves, the cumulative egg output was > 42 million/calf. For the treated group, it was < 0.1% of this number. Mean total weight gain was 33.9 kg (74.6 lb) greater for ivermectin-treated calves than for untreated control calves (P < 0.02); a 34% increase.

Clinical Implications

Fecal trichostrongyle eggs from calves can accumulate over a grazing season to provide enormous potential for augmenting pasture infectivity. An ivermectin sustained-release bolus (administered to calves being placed on pasture) controls parasitism, limits pasture infectivity, and can substantially influence growth by limiting the impact of subclinical parasitism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:754–756)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate completeness of excision and clinical outcome in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with a lateral margin of 2 cm and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—16 client-owned dogs with 1 or more cutaneous MCTs.

Procedure—Excision of MCTs was performed with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane. Histologic tumor grading was performed; surgical margins were categorized as complete or incomplete. Follow-up information was obtained via repeat examination of the dogs by veterinarians or client-completed questionnaires.

Results—4 grade I and 19 grade II cutaneous MCTs were evaluated. Overall, 21 (91%) MCTs were completely excised; 2 grade II tumors had foci of mast cells at the 2-cm margin. Two dogs received adjunctive treatments following surgery. Follow-up information was available for all dogs (median follow-up period, 379 days; range, 51 to 538 days); no local recurrence was detected during this time. De novo MCTs were detected in 3 of 16 dogs at 37, 54, and 154 days after surgery. Via Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time and disease-free interval were both > 538 days (medians not yet reached). No prognostic variables were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Excision with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane may result in satisfactory excision of grades I and II MCTs in dogs, with recurrence rates similar to those reported previously. Use of these margins may minimize complications associated with larger local tumor resection.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate complications and outcomes associated with surgical placement of gastrojejunostomy feeding tubes in dogs with naturally occurring disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—26 dogs.

Procedures—Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were evaluated. Daily postoperative abdominal radiographic examinations were performed to determine the presence of the following mechanical tube complications: kinking, coiling, knotting, and migration. Tube stoma abnormalities (erythema, cellulitis, and discharge) were observed daily and recorded by use of a standardized visual analog grading scale. Additionally, presence of complications was compared with median survival times.

Results—The most common indication for gastrojejunostomy tube placement was gastrointestinal disease (n = 11), with confirmed septic peritonitis in 8 of 11 dogs. Other indications for gastrojejunostomy tube placement included extrahepatic biliary surgery (n = 6) and pancreatic disease (9). Mean ± SD surgical time required for tube placement was 26 ± 14 minutes. Overall, mechanical tube complication rate was 46% (12/26), including coiling (7), migration (4), and kinking (2). Overall minor tube stoma complication rate was 77% (20/26) and included erythema (16), cellulitis (13), and discharge (17). Dislodgement or self-induced tube trauma resulted in accidental tube removal in 2 of 26 dogs, and inadvertent tube damage necessitated premature removal by the clinician in 1 of 26 dogs. Kaplan-Meier median survival time was 39 days with 13 of 26 dogs still alive.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrojejunostomy tube placement affords flexibility in the postoperative nutritional regimen by allowing for postgastric feeding with simultaneous access to the stomach.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the bursting strength of the uterine horns (UHs) and cervical-vestibule junction (CVJs) of rabbits following sealing with a vessel-sealing device (VSD) or encircling ligatures.

SAMPLE

UHs and CVJs collected from 30 rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) cadavers.

PROCEDURES

UHs and CVJs were randomly assigned to sealing with encircling Miller knot ligatures (LIG; n = 10 CVJs and 20 UHs) or a VSD (12 CVJs and 24 UHs). Lumens were infused with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution under pressure until seals burst or to a maximum pressure of 300 mm Hg.

RESULTS

For CVJs, median (range) bursting pressure of the LIG and VSD groups was > 300 mm Hg (224 to > 300 mm Hg) and 35 mm Hg (0 to 60 mm Hg), respectively. Five of 12 CVJs in the VSD group failed at pressures < 33 mm Hg. For UHs, median (range) bursting pressure of the LIG and VSD groups was 255 mm Hg (120 to > 300 mm Hg) and 154 mm Hg (range, 44 to 202 mm Hg), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The evaluated VSD was effective in sealing UHs at bursting pressures well in excess of expected physiologic pressures, indicating that the VSD may be useful for ovariectomy procedures in rabbits. However, CVJ seals created with the VSD were ineffective and could potentially burst at low pressures, which could predispose to urine entering the abdomen. Given these results, we do not recommend sealing of the CVJ with a VSD for ovariohysterectomy in rabbits.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research