Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: J. R. Dodam x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of dietary supplementation with chromium (Cr) picolinate on health and response to IV glucose tolerance testing (IVGTT) in obese and nonobese cats.

Animals

7 obese and 12 nonobese cats.

Procedure

6 nonobese cats were untreated controls, whereas 6 different nonobese cats and 7 obese cats received oral administration of 100 μg Cr/d for 6 weeks. All cats were evaluated before and immediately after the treatment period by use of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and IVGTT. Calculated values included glucose half-life, coefficient of glucose disappearance, insulin peak response, insulinogenic index, and insulin secretion rate determined at various times after start of IVGTT.

Results

Adverse effects on cats’ health were not observed during or after treatment, and significant changes in body weight, hematologic values, or most serum biochemical values were not detected. Serum potassium concentration decreased significantly after treatment in obese cats but was within reference range. Compared with nonobese cats, obese cats had significantly higher insulin peak response, insulinogenic index, and insulin secretion rate before and after treatment. Chromium supplementation did not alter responses to IVGTT in either treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Dietary supplementation with 100 μg of Cr/d for 6 weeks is safe but does not affect glucose tolerance in obese or nonobese cats. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1360–1363)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To document that regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves would abolish reflex-evoked muscle action potentials (REMP) in the digastricus muscle during noninvasive stimulation of tooth pulp in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

9 healthy female dogs between 2 and 6 years old.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized using halothane. An alligator clip anodal electrode was attached to the tooth to be stimulated, and a platinum needle cathodal electrode was inserted in adjacent gingival mucosa. The cathodal and anodal electrodes were moved to the left upper and lower canine, fourth premolar, and first molar teeth for sequential stimulation. Baseline recording of REMP was made for each tooth. Catheters were inserted percutaneously in the infraorbital and mandibular canals. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was injected at each catheterized site in 3 control dogs, and chloroprocaine hydrochloride was injected at each catheterized site in 6 test dogs. Each tooth was stimulated every 10 minutes for 90 minutes (test dogs) or every 10 minutes for 30 minutes and at 90 minutes (control dogs), and REMP was recorded.

Results

REMP was abolished within 10 minutes in all test dogs, except during stimulation of the lower first molar in 1 dog. In 4 dogs, duration of blockade was less than 90 minutes. The REMP was not restored within 90 minutes for the upper teeth in 1 dog and within 2 hours for all teeth in another dog. At 24 hours, REMP was restored for all teeth except the lower left canine in 1 dog. The REMP was restored for the lower left canine in that dog at 96 hours. The REMP was not abolished at any time in control dogs.

Clinical Implications

Regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves may effectively provide analgesia for dental procedures in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1403–1405)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

We evaluated the effects of clenbuterol HCl (0.8 μg/kg, of body weight, iv), a β2, agonist, on ventilation-perfusion matching and hemodynamic variables in anesthetized (by iv route), laterally recumbent horses. The multiple inert gas elimination technique was used to assess pulmonary gas exchange. Clenbuterol HCl induced a decrease in arterial oxygen tension (from 57.0 ± 1.8 to 49.3 ± 1.2 mm of Hg; mean ± sem) as a result of increased shunt fraction (from 6.6 ± 2.1 to 14.4 ± 3.1%) and ventilation to regions with high ventilation-perfusion ratios. In contrast, no changes in these variables were found in horses given sterile water. In horses given clenbuterol HCl, O2 consumption increased from 2.23 ± 0.18 to 2.70 ± 0.14 ml · min-1 · kg-1, and respiratory exchange ratio decreased from 0.80 ± 0.02 to 0.72 ± 0.01. Respiratory exchange ratio and O, consumption were not significantly modified in sterile water-treated (control) horses. Clenbuterol HCl administration was associated with increased cardiac index (from 57.4 ± 4.0 to 84.2 ± 6.3 ml. min-1 · kg-1), decreased total peripheral vascular resistance (from 108.3 ± 9.3 to 47.6 ± 2.8 mm of Hg · s · kg · ml-1), and decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (from 31.3 ± 3.8 to 13.6 ± 0.7 mm of Hg · s · kg · ml-1). Our findings indicated that clenbuterol HCl may potentiate hypoxemia as a result of increased shunt fraction in horses anesthetized by the iv route, and caused changes in hemodynamic variables that were consistent with its ability to stimulate β2-adrenergic receptors.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the intraoperative and postoperative clinical effects and histologic effects of intracameral administration of α-chymotrypsin in clinically normal dogs undergoing standard intracapsular lens extraction (ICLE).

Animals—6 young adult male dogs without evidence of systemic or ocular disease.

Procedures—All dogs underwent bilateral ICLE 7 minutes following injection of 75 U of α-chymotrypsin or an identical volume (0.5 mL) of a commercially available balanced saline solution (BSS) into the posterior chamber of the eye. Ease of lens extraction was subjectively assessed and intraoperative intraocular hemorrhage and fibrin accumulation scored. For 27 days after surgery, ocular hyperemia and discharge, chemosis, corneal edema, hyphema, and aqueous flare were scored, and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured. Thirty days after surgery, histologic evidence of anterior synechia, collapse of and inflammation within the iridocorneal angle, and iritis were scored.

Results—In 5 of 6 dogs, the surgeon was able to correctly identify the eye treated with α-chymotrypsin on the basis of ease of lens extraction. Mean intraoperative intraocular hemorrhage and fibrin scores for BSS-treated eyes were significantly higher than for α-chymotrypsin-treated eyes. Postoperatively, there were no significant differences between treatments for any clinical variables, including IOP Histologic scores were not significantly different between treatments for any variable. Vision was lost as a result of glaucoma in 1 α-chymotrypsin-treated eye and 1 BSS-treated eye.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral administration of 75 U of α-chymotrypsin 7 minutes before ICLE facilitated lensectomy without apparent adverse effects in clinically normal dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the reliability and accuracy of a predictive rectal thermometer, an infrared auricular thermometer designed for veterinary use, and a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip for measurement of core body temperature over various temperature conditions in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—8 purpose-bred dogs.

Procedures—A minimum of 7 days prior to study commencement, a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip was implanted in 1 of 3 locations (interscapular, lateral aspect of shoulder, or sacral region) in each dog. For comparison with temperatures measured via rectal thermometer, infrared auricular thermometer, and microchip, core body temperature was measured via a thermistor-tipped pulmonary artery (TTPA) catheter. Hypothermia was induced during anesthesia at the time of TTPA catheter placement; on 3 occasions after placement of the catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Near-simultaneous duplicate temperature measurements were recorded from the TTPA catheter, the rectal thermometer, auricular thermometer, and subcutaneous microchips during hypothermia, euthermia, and hyperthermia. Reliability (variability) of temperature measurement for each device and agreement between each device measurement and core body temperature were assessed.

Results—Variability between duplicate near-simultaneous temperature measurements was greatest for the auricular thermometer and least for the TTPA catheter. Measurements obtained by use of the rectal thermometer were in closest agreement with core body temperature; for all other devices, temperature readings typically underestimated core body temperature.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the 3 methods of temperature measurement, rectal thermometry provided the most accurate estimation of core body temperature in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association