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  • Author or Editor: J. R. Ayers x
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Objective—To investigate the effects of sterile fine dust aerosol inhalation on antibody responses and lung tissue changes induced by Mucor ramosissimus or Trichoderma viride spores following intratracheal inoculation in goats.

Animals—36 weanling Boer-Spanish goats.

Procedures—6 goats were allocated to each of 2 M ramosissimus–inoculated groups, 2 T viride–inoculated groups, and 2 control (tent or pen) groups. One of each pair of sporetreated groups and the tent control group were exposed 7 times to sterilized fine feedyard dust (mean ± SD particle diameter, < 7.72 ± 0.69 μm) for 4 hours in a specially constructed tent. Goats in the 4 fungal treatment groups were inoculated intratracheally 5 times with a fungal spore preparation (30 mL), whereas tent control goats were intratracheally inoculated with physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (30 mL). Pen control goats were not inoculated or exposed to dust. Goats received an IV challenge with equine RBCs to assess antibody responses to foreign antigens. Postmortem examinations were performed at study completion (day 68) to evaluate lung tissue lesions.

Results—5 of 7 deaths occurred between days 18 and 45 and were attributed to fine dust exposures prior to fungal treatments. Fine dust inhalation induced similar lung lesions and precipitating antibodies among spore-treated goats. Following spore inoculations, dust-exposed goats had significantly more spores per gram of consolidated lung tissue than did their nonexposed counterparts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fine dust inhalation appeared to decrease the ability of goats to successfully clear fungal spores from the lungs following intratracheal inoculation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare the virulence of spores of 7 fungi by tracheal inoculation of goats following exposure of goats to an aerosol of sterilized feedyard dust.

Animals—54 weanling Boer-Spanish goats.

Procedure—A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. There were 7 fungal treatment groups, a tent control group, and a pen control group (n = 6 goats/group). Goats in the 7 treatment and tent control groups were exposed to autoclaved aerosolized feedyard dust for 4 hours in a specially constructed tent. Goats in the 7 treatment groups were then inoculated intratracheally with 30 mL of a fungal spore preparation, whereas tent control goats were intratracheally inoculated with 30 mL of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. These treatments were repeated each week for 6 weeks.

Results—Severity of pathologic changes differed significantly among the 7 fungal treatment groups as determined on the basis of gross atelectatic and consolidated lung lesions and histologic lesions of the lungs. Descending order for severity of lesions was Mucor ramosissimus, Trichoderma viride, Chaetomium globosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Monotospora lanuginosa. Trichoderma viride spores were the most invasive and were isolated from the bronchial lymph nodes and thoracic fluid of all 6 goats administered this organism. Spores were observedhistologically in lung tissues harvested 72 hours after inoculation from all treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—4 of 7 fungal spore types induced significantly larger lung lesions, compared with those induced by the other 3 spore types or those evident in control goats. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:615–622)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of repeated aerosol exposures to fly ash dust on respiratory tracts of tent-confined goats.

Animals—12 weanling Boer-Spanish crossbred goats.

Procedure—Goats were randomly assigned to 2 groups: fly ash treatment group (principal goats, n = 6) or control group (control goats, 6). Aerosolized fly ash dust was provided during a 4-hour period for each of 6 applications given over 3 months and one 2-hour application prior to necropsy. Fly ash particle diameters ranged from 0.1 to 130 µm and averaged 17.8 µm, with 1.5% of fly ash particles in the 0.1- to 5-µm-diameter range. A mean ± SD of 748 ± 152 g/treatment was delivered inside a tent containing principal goats; control goats were placed inside a similar tent for 4-hour treatments without dust. Following treatment, rectal temperatures were taken at 0, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 72 hours; Hcts were recorded at 0, 24, and 72 hours.

Results—Rectal temperatures were significantly increased at 4, 6, and 8 hours and decreased at 72 hours, compared with 0 hours. Mean ± SEM Hct values were significantly increased for principal goats (37.47 ± 0.39%), compared with control goats (36.17 ± 0.42%). A significant increase in the mean area of gross atelectatic lung lesions (1,410 mm2) was found in principal goats (n = 6), compared with control goats (440 mm2; 5).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An increase in atelectatic lung lesions was observed in principal goats, compared with control goats; however, overall, fly ash dust effects were nontoxic. ( Am J Vet Res 2005;66:991–995)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the effectiveness of Pasteurella multocida biovar A, serovar 3 (Pm A:3) killed by exposure to UV light and incorporated with a polyacrylate bead carrier as a vaccine.


18 weanling male Spanish goats.


Prospective, randomized controlled study with 3 treatment groups: positive-control (PC), negative-control (NC), and principal Pm A:3 bacterin (PA) groups. Six PC goats each received live Pm A:3 and polyacrylate beads twice, 22 days apart, by transthoracic injection into the left lung. Six NC goats each received only PA beads twice, 22 days apart, by transthoracic injection. Six principal goats each received Pm A:3 vaccine SC twice, 22 days apart. Fourteen days after the second vaccination, all goats were challenge exposed with live Pm A:3 by transthoracic injection into the right lung, and 4 days later they were euthanatized and necropsied.


Mean volume of consolidated lung tissue at the challenge site was 1.75 cm3 for the PC group, 15.18 cm3 for the NC group, and 3.9 cm3 for the PA vaccine group. The NC group had a significantly (P ≤ 0.002) larger mean volume of consolidated lung tissue than did the PC and PA groups after challenge exposure.


The PA bacterin and the PC groups developed protective immunity against live Pm A:3 challenge exposure. An SC administered, UV light-killed, Pm A:3 bacterin induced protective immunity similar to that induced by virulent live Pm A:3 injected into the target organ, the lung. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:841–847)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the clinical, clinicopathologic, and histologic effects of aerosolized feedyard dust that contains natural endotoxins on adult sheep.

Animals—Eighteen 3-year-old Saint Croix sheep.

Procedure—A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. There were 2 treatment groups (dust-endotoxin group, n = 9; control group, 9). Aerosolized feedyard dust was provided continuously during a 4-hour period for each application (once in week 1, 3 times in week 2, and 7 times in week 3) to sheep in a semiairtight tent. All sheep were euthanatized and necropsied 8 hours after the treatment group received the last dust treatment. Variables measured before and after each dust treatment were rectal temperature, total WBC count, and concentrations of fibrinogen and haptoglobin.

Results—Mean amount of dust administered during each treatment was 451 g/4 h. Filter collection indicated 51 mg of dust/m3 and 7,423 ng of endotoxin. Mean rectal temperature at 8 hours (40.4 C) and mean WBC counts 12 and 24 hours after dust treatment were significantly higher for the treated group than the means of the respective variables for the control group. Similar responses were observed with repeated dust-endotoxin treatments; however, with each subsequent treatment, there was a diminished response. Sheep in the treatment group had generalized alveolar septal thickening and hypercellularity.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Feedyard dust induced a temporary febrile response and leukocytosis in sheep in the treatment group. Exposure to dust that contains endotoxins may be a stressor preceding acute infectious respiratory tract disease of marketed sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:28–35)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research