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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


The effects of intra-articular administration of dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) on chemically induced synovitis in the middle carpal joint of 6 weanling horses were evaluated. Following aseptic collection of synovial fluid, the middle carpal joint of each forelimb was injected with 50 mg of Namonoiodoacetate to induce synovitis. Eight days after injection, synovial fluid was obtained and the right middle carpal joints were injected with 2 ml of 40% dmso in lactated Ringer solution. The corresponding joints of the left limb (control) were injected with 2 ml of lactated Ringer solution. Sampling and treatments were repeated on postinjection days 11 and 14, for a total of 3 treatments. Horses were visually evaluated daily for lameness and joint effusion. Synovial fluid was evaluated for color and clarity, differential and total WBC count, total protein content, and hyaluronic acid concentration. The Kaegi gait analysis system provided an objective assessment of lameness prior to inducing synovitis, again on day 7, and on day 17. At necropsy (day 17), synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage specimens were collected.

Joint effusion was evident 12 hours after injection of Namonoiodoacetate in all joints. Mild lameness was evident at 24 hours; however, the lameness resolved by 72 hours. Objective assessment of lameness did not reveal significant differences between treatment or control limbs. Hyaluronic acid concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.023) above baseline values in most joints over the study period. Synovial fluid wbc counts increased significantly (P = 0.002) following Na-monoiodoacetate injection and remained significantly (P = 0.002) above baseline values throughout the study. There was a significantly greater decrease (P = 0.04) in total wbc counts between the pretreatment and final sampling period in the dmso-treated joints, compared with the controls. Histologic evaluation of synovial membrane samples revealed a significantly less inflammatory response in 4 of 6 dmso-treated joints, compared with that in the controls. Histochemical staining of articular cartilage did not reveal any observable difference between treated or control specimens.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To identify risk factors associated with development of laminitis of the supporting limb in Equidae with unilateral laminitis and to determine the radiographic appearance of this type of laminitis.


Retrospective analysis of medical records.


20 Equidae with unilateral lameness that developed laminitis of the contralateral limb.


Case animals were compared with matched and unmatched populations of control animals that did not develop contralateral limb laminitis. Lateromedial radiographic projections of affected feet were evaluated for evidence of laminitis.


Body weight of case animals was not significantly different from that of control animals, but number of days that control animals were lame prior to recovery was significantly less than number of days that case animals were lame prior to the onset of laminitis. Lateromedial radiographic projections of the foot of the support limb were available for 16 of the 20 case animals. For all 16, thickness of the soft tissue dorsal to the distal phalanx was > 29% of the palmar cortical length of the distal phalanx, but only 1 had evidence of rotation of the distal phalanx. The proportion of case animals that were euthanatized was significantly greater than the proportion of control animals that were euthanatized.

Clinical Implications—

Duration of lameness, but not body weight, was a risk factor for development of laminitis in the contralateral limb in Equidae with unilateral lameness, and animals that developed this complication were more likely to be euthanatized than were animals that did not. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1746–1749)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


During a 5-year period, renosplenic entrapment of the large colon was diagnosed in 57 horses referred to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center. The signalment of and clinical signs of disease in these horses were compared with such variables in 200 horses referred for other types of colic. Findings did not support a male gender predilection for this disease, as was previously reported. The case survival rate was 93% for this group of horses. Fourteen of the horses were treated nonsurgically by rolling them clockwise while they were under general anesthesia. Data supported the safety and efficacy of nonsurgical treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


From 1980 to 1989, 8 cesarean sections were performed on an elective basis in 5 mares. Four mares had partially obstructed pelvic canals; 2 of these mares had previously lost foals because of dystocia. Cervical adhesions that might obstruct passage of the fetus through the pelvic canal was suspected in the fifth mare. Cesarean section was performed prior to mares entering the first stage of labor. Readiness for birth was estimated by development of the mare's mammary gland and the presence of colostrum in the udder. A ventral midline celiotomy provided excellent exposure and healed without complications in all instances. Eight viable foals were produced. One foal developed bacterial pneumonia and septicemia after surgery and died. Follow-up evaluation of the 7 foals discharged from the hospital failed to reveal complications associated with elective cesarean section.

All mares survived the procedure. Fetal membranes were retained for up to 72 hours following surgery; however, systemic complications secondary to retained placenta did not develop. Three mares were bred subsequent to elective cesarean sections, with each mare conceiving the year following surgery. Three foals were produced by 1 mare and 2 foals have been produced by another mare by elective cesarean sections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To identify challenges veterinarians faced during the COVID-19 pandemic, explore how they coped, identify coping strategies associated with greater resilience, and determine incentives and barriers to performing healthy coping behaviors.


266 surveys completed by veterinarians in the Potomac region.


A cross-sectional survey was distributed electronically through veterinary medical boards and professional associations between June and September 2021.


Most survey responses came from veterinarians working in Maryland (128/266 [48%]) and Virginia (63/266 [24%]) who were predominantly white (186/266 [70%]), female (162/266 [61%]), and working in small-animal clinical practice (185/266 [70%]). The greatest workplace challenges experienced were increased workloads (195/266 [73%]) and reevaluating existing workflows (189/266 [71%]). Separation from loved ones (161/266 [61%]) was the greatest personal challenge. Of the veterinarians who completed the 10-point Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (n = 219), which measures resilience on a scale from 0 (no resilience) to 40 (greatest resilience), the mean score was 29.6 (SD, 6.9), with a median of 30 (IQR = 10). Intrinsic factors most strongly associated with greater resilience were increasing age (P = .01) and later career stage (P = .002). Job satisfaction, autonomy, good work-life balance, and approach-focused coping strategies were positively associated with resilience. Overwhelmingly, the primary reported barrier to performing healthy coping behaviors was limited time to devote to self-care (177/266 [67%]).


A combination of individual approach-focused coping strategies and organizational interventions are crucial to support a resilient veterinary workforce.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association