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Summary

Fifteen 2-week-old kittens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 milk treatment groups as the sole source of nutrition for 4 weeks: queen's milk, commercially available kitten milk replacer (cmr), and an experimental milk replacer (exp). Kittens fed queen's milk suckled ad libitum, whereas cmr- and exp-fed kittens were tube-fed every 6 hours. Kittens were weaned at 6 weeks of age and were fed a feline growth diet ad libitum for an additional 4 weeks. Kittens were examined at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks of age; the procedure included an ophthalmic examination and blood sample collection for cbc and serum biochemical and amino acid analyses. Kittens fed cmr and exp diets had weight gain greater than that for queen's milk-fed kittens. The kittens fed cmr, however, had diarrhea throughout most of the milk-feeding trial and developed diffuse anterior and posterior lens opacification and vacuolation at the posterior Y-sutures. The lens opacities noticed in the kittens during the milk treatments resolved to a residual perinuclear halo, and a few incipient cortical opacities were observed by the end of the growth diet-feeding period. Serum arginine concentration was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower in the cmr-fed kittens, but was not different during the growth diet-feeding period. We concluded that the exp diet supported normal growth in 2- to 6-week-old kittens; cmr supported normal kitten growth rate, but resulted in diarrhea and cataract formation; and serum amino acid data indicated that low arginine concentration may have been related to the cmr-induced cataract formation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of cyclophotocoagulation via administration of 100 J with a neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser on corneal touch threshold (CTT), intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous tear production, and corneal nerve morphology in eyes of dogs.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—Noncontact Nd:YAG laser was transsclerally applied (10 applications; 25 W for 0.1 seconds for each application to each of 4 quadrants) to the ciliary body of the left eye of 15 dogs; the right eye was the control eye. Corneal integrity, CTT, tear production as measured by the Schirmer tear test (STT), and IOP were evaluated for 14 days following laser treatment. On day 14, dogs were euthanatized, eyes harvested, and corneas stained with gold chloride. Major nerve bundles were analyzed by use of a drawing tube attached to a light microscope, and maximum diameters were measured by use of image analysis software.

Results—All laser-treated eyes had significantly higher CTT values, compared with control eyes. Six of 15 laser-treated eyes developed ulcerative keratitis. On most days, IOP was significantly lower in laser-treated eyes in both morning and evening. Laser-treated eyes had a significant decrease of approximately 1 nerve bundle/corneal quadrant. Values for STT or nerve bundle diameters did not differ significantly.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Administration of 100 J with a Nd:YAG laser effectively reduced IOP while increasing CTT and caused a significant decrease in number, but not diameter, of major corneal nerve bundles. Nerve damage and corneal hypoesthesia are etiologic factors in ulcerative keratitis following Nd:YAG cyclophotocoagulation. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:906–915)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride–0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification.

DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study.

ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes).

PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day. Dogs with IOPs of 26 to 45 mm Hg received 1 drop of 0.005% latanoprost solution topically; the surgeon's treatment of choice was used for dogs with IOPs > 45 mm Hg. Incidence of POH and postoperative IOPs were compared between treatment groups.

RESULTS DHTM treatment resulted in significantly lower incidence of POH than did sham treatment at the level of the dog (18/53 [34%] vs 31/50 [62%]) and the eye (24/94 [26%] vs 42/86 [48%]). Mean IOP did not differ between groups at the time of POH detection. The DHTM-treated eyes that developed POH were significantly more likely to have a 1-hour follow-up IOP < 25 mm Hg after latanoprost administration than were sham-treated eyes (19/25 [76%] vs 18/35 [51%]; OR, 3.87).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Multidose perioperative administration of DHTM in dogs undergoing phacoemulsification reduced the incidence of POH and improved responsiveness of POH to latanoprost treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A white Bengal tiger was determined to have a central retinal lesion and a central visual defect. Because of the known association between feline central retinal degeneration (crd) and taurine deficiency in domestic cats, plasma concentrations of taurine were measured in this tiger. Serum concentrations of taurine, methionine, and cystine also were measured in white Bengal tigers, orange Bengal tigers, taurine-sufficient domestic cats, and taurine-deprived and tissue-taurine-depleted visually impaired cats with crd. Hepatic and brain enzymes responsible for taurine synthesis were identified in tissue specimens from an orange Bengal tiger. Serum taurine concentrations were lower in white vs orange tigers, but were not as low as those in cats with crd. Thus, we concluded that taurine depletion did not account for the central retinal lesion in the white Bengal tiger.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association