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Objective—To investigate the disposition kinetics of flunixin meglumine when administered IV to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonus).

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—8 adult Patagonian conures and 24 adult budgerigars.

Procedures—Injectable flunixin meglumine (50 mg/mL) was diluted to 10 and 1. 0 mg/mL and administered IV at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb) to Patagonian conures and budgerigars, respectively.

Results—In budgerigars, the elimination half-life was 0.72 hours and the mean residence time was 0.73 hours. In Patagonian conures, the elimination half-life was 0.91 hours and the mean residence time was 1.20 hours. The concentration of flunixin was below the assay's limit of quantification (0.5 μg/mL) at 3 and 6 hours in budgerigars and Patagonian conures, respectively. A single budgerigar developed adverse effects (lethargy and signs of depression) for approximately 15 minutes following drug administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The half-life of flunixin in Patagonian conures and budgerigars was short following IV administration; however, results of this study suggested that IV administration of injectable flunixin meglumine at 5.0 mg/kg resulted in plasma concentrations that could potentially be anti-inflammatory and analgesic in budgerigars and Patagonian conures.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To compare the effect of a single parenteral injection of tilmicosin with that of a single dose of a long-acting oxytetracycline as treatment in the early stages of naturally acquired undifferentiated respiratory tract disease in young dairy calves.


Prospective clinical trial, randomized block design.


40 dairy calves.


78 calves from 5 farms were examined weekly until 3 months old. When respiratory tract disease was diagnosed by a veterinarian, the calf was assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Transtracheal wash samples were acquired to characterize the pathogens. The veterinarian, who was unaware of treatment assignments, examined calves for 3 days after treatment and evaluated severity, using a scoring system. Growth rates were measured.


On the basis of response to initial treatment, relapse rates, and effect on growth rates, the antibiotics were determined to be equally effective. Severity of clinical disease was significantly (P < 0.03) less for the tilmicosin-treated calves on days 2 and 3 after treatment. Findings from analysis of transtracheal wash samples indicated Pasteurella multocida (25/40), P haemolytica (4/40), Haemophilus somnus (4/40), Actinomyces pyogenes (3/40), and Aspergillus sp (2/40). Mycoplasma was isolated in association with bacterial isolates in 22 calves.

Clinical Implications

Tilmicosin and oxytetracycline are effective in treatment of respiratory tract disease in young calves, even when Mycoplasma spp are involved. Tilmicosin is more effective in resolving clinical signs. Early treatment of dairy calves with respiratory tract disease may decrease detrimental effects on growth.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


A double-blinded randomized prospective clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone for treatment of acute toxic mastitis in dairy cows. All cows were treated 4 times at 12-hour intervals by intramammary infusion of gentamicin (150 mg). A total of 45 dairy cows with toxic mastitis were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: group 1 (control), saline solution, iv; group 2,1 g of flunixin meglumine, iv; or group 3, 4 g of phenylbutazone, iv. Physical examination and udder variables were assessed at initial examination and 24 hours later. Milk production was recorded at regular intervals from 1 week before until 10 weeks after development of mastitis.

Rear quarters (34/45) were more commonly affected than front quarters. Thirty-five cows returned to the herd, 9 cows were culled, and 1 cow died. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in the need for further treatment or outcome. Klebsiella spp (18/45) and Escherichia coli (16/45) were the most common pathogens isolated by culture of milk from affected quarters. The overall bacteriologic cure rate on days 7 and 14 was 64 and 75%, respectively.

At the time of initial examination, cows of the control group had higher rectal temperature than did cows of the flunixin group. At the examination 24 hours later, the rectal temperature of cows in all treatment groups was lower than the temperature at initial examination; at that time (24 hours), however, there were no significant differences in temperature among the treatment groups.

Adjusted for stage of lactation, calving season, and parity, mastitic cows, compared with nonmastitic cows from the same herd, had lower milk production in the 10 weeks after development of mastitis, particularly during the week of onset. In repeated measures models, the loss of milk associated with mastitis was not significantly different among the 3 treatment groups.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate survival times for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone.


109 client-owned dogs recruited from 15 institutions in the United States.


Dogs were treated with prednisone at a dosage of 40 mg/m2, PO, once daily for 7 days and at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, PO, once daily thereafter. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by owners with a visual analog scale when treatment was started (day 0), 1 and 2 weeks after treatment was started, and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary outcome of interest was survival time as determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with survival time were examined.


Median overall survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 41 to 59 days). Factors associated with survival time included substage (a vs b) and immunopheno-type (B cell vs T cell). Owner-assigned QOL scores on days 0 and 14 were significantly positively correlated with survival time. When QOL score was dichotomized, dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores ≥ 50 had significantly longer survival times, compared with dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores < 50. No variables were predictive of long-term (> 120 days) survival.


Results suggested that survival times were short for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone. Owner-perceived QOL and clinician-assigned sub-stage were both associated with survival time. Findings provide potentially important information for clinicians to discuss with owners of dogs with lymphoma at the time treatment decisions are made. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:62–71)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association